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Developmental psychology unit 2

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PSYO 2090

February 25th (Lecture 12) Chapter 5 & 6: Infancy (physical, cognitive, socio-emotional) Infancy: birth - 2 years Cephacaudal growth pattern: Growth from top to bottom (head starts to grow first) Proximodistal growth pattern: Growth from the centre out I.e. control of trunk of body, then arms, then fingers I.e. gross motor skills and then fine motor skills USE ABOVE IN QUESTION 1 (ASSIGNMENT 2) Maturation: Biological unfolding (Gesell) Prone, lift head (0-1 month) Prone, chest up, use of arms for support (2-4 months) Roll over (2-4.5 months) Support some weight on legs (3-5.5 months) Sit without support (6 months) Dynamic systems theory (Thelen) Maturation is not a passive process Perceive something in environment This motivates the infant to act Motor skills: solution to the goals Cultural variations in infants' motor development Related to activity opportunities Reflexive behaviour Survival Primitive: Presence and then absence of primitive reflexes is an indicator of good neurological development Tonic neck reflex Moro reflex: loud noise - arms and legs go out Grasping reflex Rooting reflex Sucking reflex REFLEXE TABLE ON OWL - KNOW FOR TEST Progression of growth Newborn (18-22 inches / 6.6-10 pounds) By the end of first year: Triple their weight 1.5 times taller Average 2-year-old (32-35 inches / 26-32 pounds) Breast-feeding vs. Bottle-feeding Breast feeding 3-7 days postpartum Mother produces colostrum (yellow, thick) High levels of protein (low in fat and sugar) White blood cells Antibodies to help baby fight infection Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Protein protects infant from gastrointestinal infections 1 week postpartum - Transitional milk 1-3 weeks postpartum - Mature milk Contains fat, critical baby's brain development Proteins help baby grow Vitamins, minerals and iron Protein and enzymes that help baby digest Breastfeeding is recommended Appropriate weight gain Fewer allergies Reduction of infections Denser bones Neurological and cognitive development Visual acuity Nutrition 50 calorie per day for each pound Fat is important Malnutrition Marasmus: wasting away of body tissues in infant's first year (severe malnutrition) Severe protein-calorie deficiency Kwashiorkor: deficiency in protein; abdomen and feet swollen with water (severe malnutrition) Health Immunization Accident prevention Asphyxiation by foreign objects Falls Poisoning Burns Motor vehicle accidents Bodily damage Sleep across the human life span SEE GRAPH ON OWL Newborn should be sleep at least 16 hours After the first 2 years the child should be sleeping 12-16 hours a day Sleep and the brain Regulation of wake-sleep cycle reflects neurological maturation REM (Rapid Eye Movements) sleep Infants - half of sleep Promote brain's development in infancy Culture affects Sleep patterns Sleeping arrangements (alone or with parents) Brain is still rapidly growing Newborn = 25% of adult brain weight By age 2 = 75% of adult brain weight By age 5 = 90% of adult brain weight The brain's makeup Made up of billions of neurons Neuron with person of down syndrome have different dendrites Other disorders - axons are elongated Brain development Cell production Cell migration: neurons migrate to specific areas Cell differentiation: neurons take on specialized task February 27th (Lecture 13) Cell migration disorders Lissencephaly: Smooth brain Polymicrogyria: Great number of groves in cortical surface Heterotopias: Cells prematurely stop their migration Cell migration disorders (with the exception of heterotopias) cause: Severe mental retardation Seizures Abilities that display cerebral lateralization of function --> LOOK ON BLS Early experience in the brain Environmental experiences important in brain's development Infant's brain waiting for experiences to determine connections among neurons Cognition: The activity of knowing Cognitive development: Changes in mental process involving perception, language use, learning and thoughts Sensation: Information interacting with sensory receptors Eyes, ears, tongue, nostrils and skin Perception: The interpretation of what is sensed Theories of perceptual development Constructivist view: Perception is based on sensory input plus information retrieved from memory (Piaget) Ecological view: Directly perceive information without building representations in our mind (Gibson(s) affordance - opportunity to interact) Visual acuity and color How well can newborns see? 10-30 times lower than adults Legally blind (20/600 - the normal person could see something at 600 feet but a baby would need to be at 20 feet) Newborns differentiate between red and green Depth perception As young as 6 months (visual cliff experiment) Studying infant perception Visual preference method Fantz Distinguishing one stimulus from another Habituation and dishabituation Habituation: ability to not respond to a repeating stimulus How they ignore stimuli Tracking Perceptual motor coupling Perception and activity Traditionally considered separate Are linked Dynamic systems: infants assemble motor behaviour for perceiving and acting Ecological: action can guide perception and perception can guide action Fetus - can hear Newborn Respond to touch Can feel pain Smell and taste are present at birth Intermodal perception: Ability to integrate information from 2 or more senses In infancy is there intermodal perception? Constructivist - No, by the end of the first year Ecological - yes Jean Piaget Cognitive-developmental theory Constructivist view: Cognitive construction is based on sensory input and information retrieved from memory Schemas: Actions or mental representations that organize knowledge Assimilation Accommodation Cognitive stages Determine individual's behaviour and attitudes Sensorimotor: (0-2) Uses senses and motor behaviours to adapt to the world Ability to organize and coordinate sensations with physical movements Consists of 6 substages of cognitive development Is non-symbolic through most of its duration Object permanence develops Understanding physical reality Object permanence: understanding that objects exist when they are no longer visible One of infant's most important accomplishments Piaget's substages of sensorimotor development Substage 1: simple reflexes (birth - 1 month) Refine innate reflexes such as sucking and grasping Substage 2: First habits and primary circular reactions (1-4 months) Are pleasurable actions Primary: body Circular: repetition Substage 3: Secondary circular reactions (4-8 months) Secondary: environment Centered on objects and events in the external environment Substage 4: Coordination of secondary schema (8-12 months) Combining actions to solve simple problems (first evidence of intentional behaviour) Substage 5: Tertiary circular reaction (12-18 months) Tertiary: coming up with different ways to get a reaction from a stimulus New ways to solve problems Trial and error schemas reflecting curiosity Substage 6: Beginning of thought (18-24 months) First evidence of insight; can solve problems mentally, using symbols Symbolic capacity: ability to use images, words, or gestures to represent objects and experience Symbolic play: Pretend play Symbolic thought ends sensorimotor stage LOOK ON BLS Information processing perspective Emphasizes importance of cognitive process LOOK ON BLS attention --> habituation and dishabituation Memory: retention of information over time Explicit: Conscious memory Implicit: Memory without conscious recollection Imitation of facial expressions - after the first few days of life Deferred imitation occurs at about 9 months Infantile amnesia March 4th (Lecture 14) Thinking: Conceptual abilities occurs earlier than Piaget's prediction Learning and memory: If rewarding stimulus follow infant's behaviour, behaviour likely to recur Gesell (1934) developed the developmental quotient (DQ) Motor: adaptive behaviour Language: Personal-social behaviour DQ does not correlate highly with IQ scores Bayley Scales of infant development Mental scale Motor scale Infant behaviour IQ scores for infant are not good predictors of childhood intelligence Nutrition Affects physical development Malnutrition restricts cognitive development Poverty: Many low income parents have difficulty providing intellectually stimulating environment Early intervention programs Healthy steps Healthy beginnings Language development Language: A system of symbols used to communicate System rules Phonology: Language sound system (phonemes) Morphology: Combining morphemes (smallest meaningful unit of language) Syntax: Combining words to form acceptable phrases/sentences Semantics: Meaning of words and sentences Pragmatics: Use of appropriate conversation and knowledge underlying the use of language Crying Babbling and cooing (3-6 months) Recognize sound change First words understood (6-9 months) - lateralization is starting to occur First words spoken (10-15 months) SEE BLS FOR GRAPH Holophrase: Single word used to imply a complete sentence (first words) 18-24 months infants speak in two-word utterances Telegraphic speech is use of short precise words (toddlers) Measure of language maturity Brown - mean length of utterance (MLU) Video Newborns and a little after are able to distinguish all the different sounds in every language (i.e. Chinese she and chi - to us they both sound the same but the baby is able to pick up on the shift in sounds) - they are 'citizens of the world' By 11 months babies are "citizens of a single country" only able to recognize 1 language 13 month old babies listen and understand with both cerebral hemisphere but at 20 months the language centre of the brain has begun to shift to the left hemisphere Brain begins to specialize in the language they know the best - experience with language is what begins this specialization Experience is a major player in driving the major differentiation of the brain Biological influence Children all over the world acquire language milestones in the same time and order Brain's role in language: Aphasia: Loss of ability to use words Broca's area: Speech production Wernicke's area: Language comprehension Chomsky: humans are biological prewired to learn language Language acquisition device (LAD) Behavioural view: language is learned through reinforcement and imitation Parents can facilitate children's language Child-directed speech: spoken in higher pitch Recasting: rephrasing statements Expanding: restating/explaining Labeling: identifying names of objects Chapter 6: socioemotional development Socioemotional development Attachment: a strong affectionate tie that binds a person to an intimate companion Infants (parents too) are biologically predisposed to form attachments Establishing attachment Infant characteristics ("cute") Primitive reflex Behaviour (grasping) Smiling Cooing and babbling Problems in establishing attachment Some babies are hard to love Unresponsive Withdrawn Sluggish Irritable Extremely agitated Temperament: an individual's behavioural style of responding Thomas and Chess (1977, 1991) - three basic types Easy Difficult Slow-to-warm-up LOOK ON BLS Emotionality Sociability Activity level Easy Postitive mood Easily adapts Regular routine Difficult Negative, cry Slow to accept Irregular Slow-to-warm-up Low intensity Low adaptability Low activity Goodness of fit: match between child's temperament and environmental demands Reciprocal relationship (socialization) between parent and infant Some adults have trouble responding to infants Parents who were: Unloved Neglected Abused Depressed Scaffolding: an important role of parent to introduce social rules Attachment produces internal working models of what human relationships should be like Quality of early attachment has influence on later development Harlow's research with infant monkeys Wire mother (fed 50% of monkeys) Cloth mother (fed 50% of monkeys) Attachment - to cloth mother regardless of who fed the infant monkeys Contact comfort: Pleasurable tactile sensation more powerful for attachment then reduction of hunger (feeding) Attachment Infant and care provider Bronfennbrenner - "The family is the natural environment to nourish a child's growth" March 6th (Lecture 15) Responsive parents contribute to the development of trust (Erikson) Bowlby - importance of first year and the responsiveness of caregiver Strange situation - Ainsworth's measure of infant attachment to caregiver Secure attachment: parents are responsive to the infants needs and emotional signals Secure base from which to explore environment Type B 85% of children have a secure attachment The strange situation (Ainsworth) Measure of infant attachment to caregiver Episode 1: Experimenter brings caregiver & child into an unfamiliar room Episode 2: Caregiver and child remain alone Episode 3: Stranger enters and Episode 4: Caregiver leaves Episode 5: Parent returns, offers comfort, stranger leaves Episode 6: Parent leaves again Episode 7: Stranger enters and offers comfort Episode 8: Parent re-enters; offers comfort Insecure attachment types Anxious-avoidant attachment Parents tend to be impatient, unresponsive to infant's signals Resentful when infant interferes with their own plans Type A Anxious-resistant attachment Parents are inconsistent caregivers, react differently depending on mood, and often are unresponsive Type C Disoriented attachment Resulting from abuse or maltreatment Parents behaviour is unpredictable (abusing and/or loving) Type D (worst type of attachment) Parents Mother-infant interaction: infant care activities Father-infant interaction: play Lamb (1977) - in stressful circumstances, infants show stronger attachment to mothers (But depends on who the child is more strongly attached to) Infants in day care vs. Infants with "stay-home" mom -- Is there a different in infant-parent attachment? High-quality care and fewer hours in care lead to
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