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PSYO 3224 (13)
Lecture

Criminal profiling.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYO 3224
Professor
Dr.Christie
Semester
Winter

Description
January 31st (Lecture 12) Criminal profiling Definition "a technique for identifying the major personality and behaviour characteristics of an individual based on the analysis of the crimes he or she has committed" (Douglas Ressler, Burgess & Hartman, 1986) Art vs. science Not really an exploration of a science in criminal profile - not really a science of profiling Best off becoming a police officer first because there are very few psychologists who are profilers Profile commonly includes Age Sex Race Intelligence level Educational history Hobbies Family background Residence What kind of living environment they live in Criminal history Employment status Psychosexual development Post-office behaviour Why would you want to know these? Purpose Narrow the search for suspects Help set traps to flush out an offender Determine whether a threatening note should be taken seriously Give advice on how best to interrogate a subject Tell prosecutors how to break down defendants in cross examination Popular media Clarice Starling in Silence of the Lambs Criminal minds Cracker Profiler Poirot Profiling uses Serial arson Serial bombers Serial killers Serial rapists Why is it used for serial killers? They follow strict patterns and it's possible (unlike someone who commits a crime once you can't tell what features that aren't apart of the offenders behaviour - like where it happened) Also suggests something else - that you believe that these are traits (that won't change) of the individual Malleus Maleficarum (15th century) Means the hammer against witches Profile of witches malleusmaleficarum.org This is what they thought: Woman (weaker than men) Strong personality (not be able to resist temptation) Defies convention (lives outside the community, isn't married with children etc.) Does not cry at trial Book that has a collection of writings Catholic church wanted to crack down on the witches Detailed the profiles of what a witch was - important to know what these creatures are There is a witch nearby if: If people are trying to get pregnant and can't If there are injurious storms Livestock getting injured Disappearing penises 1888 Jack the Ripper Got the name from a letter set to the newspaper that was signed that way What would lead them to believe that he was quiet and a loner? somebody had to trust him to go, got away with it Without a career and eccentric Dr. George Phillips and Dr. Thomas Bond Examined the wounds for insight into the offender's psychological makeup 1940 New York's "Mad Bomber" Wrote a letter to the NY times when the US entered the war - supported the war Left a few notes relaying to the bombs he had set and describe he wasn't happy with Con-Ed (power company) and would set bombs until they smarten up Profile by Dr. James Brussel Mad bomber profile Male, age 40-50 Suffering from paranoia Skilled mechanic Cunning Neat with tools and egotistical about skills with them Not interested in women High school graduate Expert in civil or military ordinance Unmarried, a loner, probably living with brother or sister Neat, clean-shaven, with a macular build A foreigner, probably central or eastern European Resents criticism (might be violent about it) Present or former Con-Ed worker Letters were postmarked Westchester, but he didn't reside Religious, probably catholic Suffered a serious disease, possibly heart disease "When you catch him, hell be wearing a double- breasted suit - buttoned" Why? As people age they wear the clothes they wore in their 20s (double berated suits were popular when he was 20) Not interested in fashion Name was George Metesky Following is when they went back to see what was wrong with their profile Metesky profile Male, age 54 Suffering from paranoia Skilled mechanic Cunning Neat with tools and egotistical about skills with them Not interested in women High school graduate Expert in civil or military ordinance Unmarried, a loner, probably living with brother or sister Neat, clean-shaven, with a macular build A foreigner, probably central or eastern European Resents criticism (might be violent about it) Present or former Con-Ed worker Letters were postmarked Westchester, but he didn't reside Religious, probably catholic Suffered a serious disease, possibly heart disease "When you catch him, hell be wearing a double- breasted suit - buttoned" Profile didn't get him arrested - looked at Con-Ed for people who got fired for suspicious reasons Considered the foundation profile 1970s 1972 - FBI behavioural sciences unit National centre for the analysis of violent crimes Police agencies for profiling in other countries Criticisms of profiling Many forms of profiling are based on the classic trait model Many profiles contain information that is so vague and ambiguous they can potentially fit many subjects Professional profilers = bartenders --- not much different from bartenders (Bartenders can come up with the same thing - talk to a lot of people) Kocsis et al (2000) Profilers, psychologists, police, students, and psychics Crime scene report, forensic biologist and entomologist reports, ballistics reports, preliminary postmortem exam and pathologist's report, basic victim info and photos of the crime scene and body All from case that is already solved Give detailed description of the offender 45 items multiple choice questionnaire e.g. what is the sex of the offender Adjective list (ACL) describing the offender - check off which ones describe the offender Got all these people to create a profile RESULTS Looking at how correct they were on the questionnaires Broke it down into different kinds of questions (e.g. thoughts, physical, offence, social - are they married, do they have a home and personality) Students 2.3/7 correct for thoughts category Scores are not that much different Profilers did do be
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