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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 Sept. 12.docx

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Dalhousie University
PSYO 3280
Dr.Simon Sherry

Wednesday, Sept. 12 2012 PSYO 3280 Personality Psychology Gosling & Vazire’s Comparative Approach → In the animal domain, “do personality traits reflect real properties of individuals or are they fictions in the minds of perceivers?” (p. 608) → Considers 3 criteria: 1. Independent observers must agree 2. Must predict behaviours and real-world outcomes 3. Reflect genuine attributes, not implicit theories → If can show these 3 criteria are met, then you can argue that it has to be acknowledged that animals have personalities → There are some traits that are more reliably identified by observers that are clearer in the animals behaviour  Individuality: Separateness, uniqueness  Psychological individuality (personality): Habits of thought and expression; attitudes, traits, interests; and philosophy of life  Character: Evaluation (ethical judgment) of personality; behave in approved ways  Temperament: Characteristic phenomena of emotional nature; dependent on constitutional make-up (hereditary) Cicero’s Meanings of Persona → Appear to others (but not as one really is) - Not necessarily how you really are - The appearance that you give off to others → Part played in life (role) - The “role” you play in life  E.g., mom, dad, sister, doctor, teacher, etc... - Usually play the “role” up to others’ expectations and is not your true self → Personal qualities - The real characteristics that you have → Prestige and dignity (personage) - Dependent upon your social status that you act according to Person → Has self consciousness and memory (Wolff) - Being able to see yourself thinking and feeling, and think about thinking and feeling - Some other animals may have this, but have it in limited amounts - Personhood is not something that we are born with, but something we develop → Substance gifted with understanding (Leibnitz) - What is understanding, how can we be sure we understand, do animals understand? → A thinking, intelligent being, that has reason and reflection and can consider self as itself (Locke) - Consider self as itself = self consciousness → Essence, visible centre (Rickert) - There is something in it (“sou
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