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Lecture 4

PSYO 1011 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Outer Ear, Inner Ear, Middle Ear
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2 Pages
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Fall 2018

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYO 1011
Professor
Leanne Stevens,Shelley Adamo,Kevin Duffy,Jennifer Stamp
Lecture
4

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PSYO 1011 Lecture Notes Oct. 18th, 2018
Hearing: The Auditory System
The auditory system is designed to detect sound waves
Air molecules are required to generate sound waves
Compression and refraction combined produces sound waves
Frequency
o The number of cycles per second
o Peak to peak
o 1 cycle per second = 1 Hz
o Perceived as pitch (codes pitch perception)
Amplitude
o Distance between the peak and the troth
o Encodes amplitude as loudness
o Unit of loudness is called decibels (dB)
o 0 dB = smallest detectable sound
o 10 dB = 10x
o 20 dB = 100x
o 30 dB = 1000x
o 60 dB - conversation
o 120 dB - concert
o 160 dB - immediate damage to auditory system
Sound waves
o Two simple waves combined make a complex wave
o Spectrum graph - x axis (Hz) and y axis (module mV)
Humans can detect all frequencies between 20Hz and 20,000Hz
Young adult -> 20 Hz - 20,000 Hz
Older adult -> 20 Hz - 15,000 Hz
Most sensitive -> 2,000 - 5,000 Hz
Anatomy of the Ear
Outer ear
o Pinna -> funnels sound waves
o External meatus (ear canal)
o Eardrum (tympanic membrane)
Middle ear
o 3 bones (ossicles)
Hammer
Anvil
Stirrup
Inner ear
o Cochlea (Latin for snail)
Loudness and Pitch Perception
Loudness
o Coded by (1) the degree of hair cell bending, and by (2) neurons that are activated only after
a threshold level of hair cell bending
Pitch
o Frequency theory (phase locking) states that the frequency of nerve impulses sent to the
brain matches the frequency of the sound

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Description
PSYO 1011 Lecture Notes Oct. 18 , 2018 Hearing: The Auditory System The auditory system is designed to detect sound waves Air molecules are required to generate sound waves Compression and refraction combined produces sound waves Frequency o The number of cycles per second o Peak to peak o 1 cycle per second = 1 Hz o Perceived as pitch (codes pitch perception) Amplitude o Distance between the peak and the troth o Encodes amplitude as loudness o Unit of loudness is called decibels (dB) o 0 dB = smallest detectable sound o 10 dB = 10x o 20 dB = 100x o 30 dB = 1000x o 60 dB - conversation o 120 dB - concert o 160 dB - immediate damage to auditory system Sound waves o Two simple waves combined make a complex wave o Spectrum graph - x axis (Hz) and y axis (module mV) Humans can detect all frequencies between 20Hz and 20,000Hz Young adult -> 20 Hz - 20,000 Hz Older adult -> 20 Hz - 15,000 Hz Most sensitive -> 2,000 - 5,000 Hz Anatomy of the Ear Outer ear o Pinna -> funnels sound waves o External meatus (ear canal) o Eardrum (tympanic membrane) Middle ear o 3 bones (ossicles) Hammer Anvil Stirrup Inner ear o Cochlea (Latin for snail) Loudness and Pitch Perception Loudness o Coded by (1) the degree of hair cell bending, and by (2) neurons that are activated only after a threshold level of hair cell bending Pitch o Frequency theory (phase locking) states that the frequency of nerve impulses sent to the brain matches the frequency of the sound
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