PSYO 1012 Lecture 13: Crown Behaviour...

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16 Feb 2016
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Crown Behaviour Attraction and Love Prosocial
Behaviour Prejudice
Crowd Behaviour
-Are sports fans barbarians? Do people behave differently in crowds the alone? What
factors make crowds of normal people do abnormal things?
-these are questions we should ask when considering crowd behaviour
-deindividuation: this is the loss of individuality that leads to disinhibited (abnormal)
behaviour
anonymity is a key factor
Anonymity
-this is shown through a study done by Meyers and Spencer in 2004
-subjects were told to administer shocks to a helpless woman, they were more likely to
give more shocks if they are disguised
-also in a study, children were told to steal candy, which they were more likely to do if
anonymous as well as in groups
-in an analysis of suicides by jumping my Mann in 1981, crowds were more likely to
encourage suicide victims if it was dark outside
Social Loafing
-social loafing is a word to describe cases when efforts are pooled and as a result,
individuals slack of
-this was first studied using the rope-pull task (Meyers and Spencer 2004)
-by adding more people to the rope to pull, there was not any addition of weight being
able to be pulled
-for example, alone pull = 63kg, 3 people pull ~ 189kg but really = 158kg (16% less), 8
people pull ~ 504kg but really = 247kg (51% less)
-social loafing is most likely to occur in these 6 instances:
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1. Individuals believe that their effort is not being monitored (no one is watching,
don't have to work)
2. Task is not important (why should I really care…?)
3. Group is not valued
4. Task is simple and individual effort is redundant
5. Individuals are fatigues
6. Individuals are all male
Forming Close Relationships
-there are three features which promote the development of friendships and romantic
relationships:
Proximity
-this is partially due to the mere exposure effect…repeated exposure to a
stimulus increases our liking for it
Repeated unplanned interactions
A setting encouraging people to let their guard down and coined in each
other
Attractiveness and Attraction
-attractiveness
most people think of the heuristic “what is beautiful is good”
this is used instinctively when judging other people
Similarity and Attraction
-similarity generally leads to interpersonal attraction
-interdisciplinary literature, spanning over 100 years shows this
-romantic partners and friends tend to be more similar than expected by chance:
race
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socioeconomic status
physical appearance
attractiveness
not necessarily attitudes
Similarity Attracts: Seating Preferences
-Mackinnon et al. (2011) carried out a study
-saw that we actually tend to like people that look like us (this can be seen as the
result of a cue for kinship)
-Study 1 and 2: people sit closer to others if they are the same race, have similar hair
colour or are both wearing glasses
-Study 3: people sit closer to a confederate when they look more physically similar to
that confederate
Matching Effect
-overall, people end up in a romantic relationships with people of similar physical
attractiveness more often than chance
-this may not be a deliberate choice
-Shaw et al. (20110 found that everyone prefers physically attractive partners, it’s just
that the more attractive people can afford to be more picky
-it is said that the matching occurs because we end up with the most attractive person
that will say yes
How to Define Attractiveness?
-Many raters score the attractiveness of faces while looking for inter-rater reliability
-inter-rater reliability:
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