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Lecture 15

PSYO 1012 Lecture 15: Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYO 1012
Professor
Stevens Leanne
Lecture
15

Page:
of 9
Tuesday, February 23, 2016
Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories
What is Personality?
-the distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking feeling and acting that
characterize a person’s responses to life situations
-when we know someone, how is it that the know about this person, it is generally how
they behave which is relatively consistent
-Behaviours (such as):
components of identity
perceived internal cause
perceived organization and structure
-are all attributed to personality
Sigmund Freud
-creator of psychoanalysis
-had theories that were innovative but often also found incredibly offensive or
unsavoury
-sexual views were greatly repressed during his time
The Psychodynamic Perspective
-Freud came up with the first formal theory of personality
-Levels of Consciousness
Conscious
-the immediate awareness of the current environment
-paying attention to the prof while they are speaking
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Tuesday, February 23, 2016
Preconscious
-the available awareness that needs o be brought into consciousness
-for example your first kiss or what you ate for breakfast
Unconscious
-unavailable to awareness
-the majority is not accessible
-Components of Personality
Superego
-the sense of mortality internalized cultural values about what is “right” and
“wrong”
-the “angel on our shoulder”
-to the most extent, conscious
Ego
-the conscious aspect of personality that tries to balance the demands of the
superego and the id (“reality principle”)
-the balance between the two
Id
-the source of unconscious energy, entirely unconscious (“pleasure principle”)
-“want what I want and I want it right now”
-an over-impulsive person has a large id, and a smaller ego and super ego
-an over-controlled person has a large superego, and smaller ego and id
-a healthy person generally has a larger ego with equally small id and superego
Defence Mechanisms
-the maladaptive responses that occur when there is no realistic way to satisfy both
the id and the superego
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Tuesday, February 23, 2016
-distorting of reality and operate unconsciously
-a good example is sweet treats (the id wants ice cream, superego says ice cream is
bad, ego asks how we can resolve that that?)
Motivated Forgetting
1. Repression (this is the primary defence mechanism)
anxiety arousing memories or impulses are pushed into the unconscious mind
causes you to completely forget that you did something or something happened
an example could be sexual or physical abuse from parents as a child
2. Denial (not very common - when in shock)
refusing to acknowledge anxiety-inducing aspects of the environment or
threatening feelings that are happening right now
an example would be saying the sundae you are eating is healthy not a bad sundae
Change the Target
3. Projection
an unacceptable impulse is repressed, and then attributed to other people
for example “I like sundaes?! NO! You like sundaes!”
denying an emotion as well as putting it on others
4. Displacement
an unacceptable or dangerous impulse is repressed, then redirected at a safer
substitute target
an example is being angry with your boss at work so you repress anger until you
get home then get angry at your significant other instead
Think Your Way Out
5. Intellectualization
the emotion connected with an upsetting event is repressed, and the situation is
dealt with as an intellectually interesting event
an example, emotions of breaking up, thought through as an intellectual event
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