PSYO 2090 Lecture Notes - Eye Tracking, Habituation, Autonomic Nervous System

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6 Feb 2013

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PSYO2090: Developmental Psychology
February 4th 2013
Dr. Juckes
Experimental Design
Uses independent and dependent variables
Strongest for causality
Random assignment of subject
Within Subject Design
Multiple measurements of the same subject going through different varriables
Example: Time Manipulation
Between Subject Design
Compare two or more groups with each group having different levels (or types) of the same
Although there is random assignment, groups might be matched based on demographic.
Psychophysical Methods
Since children may not be able to talk or may not have the vocabulary to communicate
properly, we must look into pre-verbal and non-verbal ways to test their reactions
Preferential-looking Paradigm
David Teller, 1970
Two sides of a visual display are set up with a viewing aperture between them
Each display would show different images
The idea was that whichever display the infant looked towards, the more interested the infant
was in which ever image was being displayed
Originally, a researcher would sit behind the displays and look through a hole and record which
way the infant was looking.
With new technological advances, we are able to be more precise, objective and accurate (TV
and computer screens, eye tracking, etc)
Habituation Paradigm (pg 52)
Children look longer at things that are novel/interesting (or non-habitual)
This technique can falsify hypothesis that an infant cannot discriminate between two stimuli,
since the infant is looking at one stimuli longer.
Example: An infant who looks longer at a video being played backwards compared to a regular
video would be understood to be looking since it is different than what is normal
Violation of Expectations Paradigm (pg 53)
An infant looks longer at impossible events
This tests the infants expectations about the world.
For showing impossible events, a child looks longer because they wish to investigate it more.
Example: Something disappearing, sounds that don't match up with what the child is seeing, etc.
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