PSYO 2090 Lecture Notes - Eye Tracking, Habituation, Autonomic Nervous System
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PSYO2090: Developmental Psychology
February 4th 2013
•Uses independent and dependent variables
•Strongest for causality
•Random assignment of subject
Within Subject Design
•Multiple measurements of the same subject going through different varriables
Example: Time Manipulation
Between Subject Design
•Compare two or more groups with each group having different levels (or types) of the same
•Although there is random assignment, groups might be matched based on demographic.
Since children may not be able to talk or may not have the vocabulary to communicate
properly, we must look into pre-verbal and non-verbal ways to test their reactions
•David Teller, 1970
•Two sides of a visual display are set up with a viewing aperture between them
•Each display would show different images
•The idea was that whichever display the infant looked towards, the more interested the infant
was in which ever image was being displayed
•Originally, a researcher would sit behind the displays and look through a hole and record which
way the infant was looking.
•With new technological advances, we are able to be more precise, objective and accurate (TV
and computer screens, eye tracking, etc)
Habituation Paradigm (pg 52)
•Children look longer at things that are novel/interesting (or non-habitual)
•This technique can falsify hypothesis that an infant cannot discriminate between two stimuli,
since the infant is looking at one stimuli longer.
Example: An infant who looks longer at a video being played backwards compared to a regular
video would be understood to be looking since it is different than what is normal
Violation of Expectations Paradigm (pg 53)
•An infant looks longer at impossible events
•This tests the infants expectations about the world.
•For showing impossible events, a child looks longer because they wish to investigate it more.
Example: Something disappearing, sounds that don't match up with what the child is seeing, etc.