RELS 1002 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Pope Gregory Xiii, Hebrew Calendar, Muslim Holidays
Course CodeRELS 1002
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October 24th 2018
o Gregorian calendar→ commonly used calendar today invented by Pope
Gregory XIII in 1582 and if you’re Catholic you have to follow this calendar. It
took some time until Protestants accepted this calendar. Orthodox Christians
accepted this calendar very late in the 20th century
Other churches (Copts in Egypt) however didn’t accept this calendar
and kept using the Julian calendar, which differs by 13 days. A Julian
calendar is 13 days behind so Copts celebrate Christmas on January
7th according to the Gregorian calendar.
Gregorian randomly decided to change the day and initially moved 10
days and than gradually accumulated to 13 days due to leap years.
The year 2018 is the approximate date of the birth of Jesus.
In Ethiopia however the churches believes the year is 2011 due to a
difference in how they calculate when Jesus is born.
o What is a year?
Solar year: the time it takes the Earth to orbit the sun= 365. 25 days
o Muslim Calendar
Not a solar calendar: has nothing to do with the time it takes the Earth
to orbit the sun
Depends on the lunar month→ the moon’s cycle from
There is 12 lunar months= 1 lunar year
There’s no leap years (AKA intercalation)
Solar year is longer than 12 lunar months by about 10/11 days
This is why Muslim holidays seem to be going back 10 days according
to the civic calendar however the in the Muslim calendar the holidays
are celebrated on the same day.
1440 is the Muslim year today, which is counted from the Hijra
(Muhammad’s move from Mecca to Medina, according the Christian
calendar is 622). SO… the Muslim year 1 is Christian year 622
➢ However you can’t add 622 to Muslim years to get the current
year due to the Muslim year being shorter.
o Jewish Calendar→ Lunisolar Calendar
Also uses lunar months
Very small difference b/t Jewish and Muslim month beginnings
because Jews calculate the moon cycles however Muslims base it on
observance of the moon.
12 lunar months however in a leap year there’s 13 lunar months
Leap years happen every 3 years
Jewish year = solar year because Jewish year is adjusted to the solar
year due to the leap year that takes place very 3 years.
As a result Jewish holidays goes back in time in non-leap years
however in the leap year the holiday jumps forward.
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