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Lecture 12

Lecture 12 - A Brief History of the Social Control of Drugs in North America Dr. Mark Asbridge.docx

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Dalhousie University
Soc & Social Anthropology
SOSA 2503
Emma Whelan

A Brief History of the Social Control of Drugs in North America – Mark Asbridge (Dalhousie University) Sociologist, in medicine, Epidemiology etc. Atlantic Student Drug Use Survey: Overview: 1. Defining terms: what is social control 2. 4 /5 periods in the history of drug control and criminalization in Canada 1850 to present time. Why some drugs focus of regulation during those periods? 3. Key forces in the social control of drugs What is social control?  Means for the preservation of the social order:  Other words you can replace social order with,  ie. Moral regulation, coercion, discipline, restraint, governance  All the ways that people respond to unacceptable behaviour  Informal (not putting finger up nose), and formal mechanisms of social control (law, regulation, policiy, student code of conduct)  Try to direct the person to something more socially appropriate  Responses may try to direct people to something more socially appropriate or normal  All of the ways people try to manage, prevent, or reduce unacceptable behaviour  These kinds of social controls are informal (eg. finger up nose)  Formal mechanisms of social control  Law, regulation, policy, student code of conduct  Most social control informal and non-repressive, socially acceptable way of acting/behaving  There are the subjects of social control (people, behaviours), subjects typically have less power than the people who impose the social control. Meant to produce reaction or status quo  Agents of social control (person checking for ID, parents, professor at front of room), individuals, groups, organizations of society  Usually someone benefits from social control  Formal social control is reactive for 2 purposes: 1. Preventative 2. Reactive  Formal control of substance use and drugs Eg. Stop signs. Ask for your ID at liquor store, talk to professor  Various purposes of formal control and regulation related to substance use Purpose of formal control/regulation of substance use?  Government revenue  Ensure purity  Symbolic control  Cultural/Religious virtues  Protection of public order  Improve public heatlh  Public safety: drunk driving, mayor of Toronto,  Government Revenue: $$ off taxes of alcohol and tobacco, one of the debates around legalizing marijuana  Ensure the purity: alcohol compared to cocaine  Symbolic control: forbid certain substances for the purpose of maintaining power among certain group of individuals to create symbolic control  Cultural/Religious virtues: certain cultures are against alcohol/drug use  Protection of public order: public drunkiness etc.  Improve public health: usually least valued or last mentioned: if it was about public health tobacco would be switched, some illegal drugs are beneficial Model of Drug Extremes [chart] Maintenance: methodone, limited of heroine to prevent from having problems etc. Adult markets: alcohol, tobacco (to an extent) Free market: caffeine The Object of Regulation  Regulation of the product  Regulation of the provider or seller: outlet density, hours of sale, NSLC  Regulation of the condition of sale  Regulation of the buyer or consumer PERIODS IN THE HISTORY OF DRUG CONTROL  Historically not about pharmacology or harms of the drug. Legistaltion and control often about who uses it and when they are using it, not the harms.  [GRAPH] “Harm Caused by Drugs”  alcohol is the most dangerous and the most accessible.  Some class A or scheduale 1 drugs like LSD, mushrooms that have very low levels of harm but serious legislation  Man who released the graph was fired after he released it, couldn’t critique law and also work for public interest  He argued popular past time is horse riding and its far more dangerous than use of ecstasy etc.  Lots of studies of people who use E everyday and carry out day to day lives, can’t tell in their behaviour and lifestyle Phase 1: 1850 – early 1900s  Lead up to Alcohol Prohibition  Many substances illicit today were widely consumed during this period (cocaine, morphine, opium)  Drug use was predominantly the activity of early European settlers who were while/middle-class  U.S. Government and Supreme Court Flirted with various controls on alcohol (particularly sale and manufacturing) and drugs.  Drug use was on the decline during this period.  Canada did little, other than introduce minor restrictions in some provinces.  Lead up to alcohol prohibition  Lot of concern about alcohol and its harms  What is alcohol prohibition: when alcohol was outlawed, removal of a substance from purchasing, use from all aspects of society. Complete societal abstenence, (production and consumption)  Many substances illicit today were widely consumed during this period (cocaine) etc.  SLIDE POINT Opium was in soothing syrup for teething children and for children with colic Cocaine Toothache Drops: commonly marketed Bayer (aspiring) also produced heroin, used for a variety of other things TB, cough, calm the body down. Could send in for sample, many physicians used quite regularly Cocarettes: stimulant effects to brain activity, “For sale by all Dealers.” Coco wine: quick and very diffusible stimulent: Peruvian cocaine, voice tonic, suggested dosage = wine glass full at or after meals, only ½ glass for kids “a quick and very diffusible stimulant,” composed of pure grape wine and Peruvian cocaine. The reverse of the card lists the many health benefits – it both averts fatigue and induces sleep!!! It is recommended as a voice tonic and as an opium substitute – suggested dosage is a wine glass full at or after meals – HALF A GLASS FOR CHILDREN!!!!”  people flirting with idea of production and consumption of alcohol. Only 1 th provincial band in 19 century in New Brunswick  what was the moral fabric of society going to be like under influence of alcohol  Drug use on decline Phase 2: 1900-1950 – The Legislation of Morality in Canada and US United States  Prohibition (1920-1933)  Hobson Resolution (1914)  18 Amendment (1918)  Volsted Act (1920)  Harrison Narcotics Control Act (1914)  Federal Bureau of Narcotics
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