Class Notes (839,113)
Canada (511,191)
PSYC 3342 (5)

Ch. 6 Conduct Problemsecture 3.docx

6 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 3342

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 6 pages of the document.
Lecture 3 - Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiance Disorder January 17, 2013 9:24 AM Description of conduct problems  Conduct problems and antisocial bx described age inappropriate actions/attitudes that violate family expectation, societal norms or personal or property rights of others  Diversity in disruptive/rule-violating behaviors ranges form annoying minor behavior to serious antisocial bx  Consider many types, pathways, causes and outcomes  Often associated with unfortunate family and neighborhood circumstances; circumstances do no excuse the bx but helps us understand it Context costs and perspective  Context o Antisocial bx appear and decline during "normal" development  Vary in severity, minor disobedience to fighting  Some antisocial bx decrease with age  Some increase with age and opportunity  More common in boys in childhood but the difference narrows in teens  Kids who are the most physically aggressive in early childhood maintain their relative standing over time  Social and economic cost o Conduct problems are the most costly mental health problems In north america o Earle, persistent, extreme pattern of antisocial bx occurs in 5% of kids; these kids account for over 50% of crime in the US and 30-50% of clinic referrals o 20% of mental health expenditures in the US are attributable to crime o Public costs across healthcare, juvenile justice and educational system are at least $10,000 per child o Lifetime cost to society per kid who leaves high school for life of crime/drugs about $2million  Perspectives o Legal  Juvenile delinquency : kid who has broken the law  Legal definitions result from apprehension and court contact; so they exclude antisocial bx of very young kid occurring in home or school  Age of responsibilities is 12 in most states and provinces  A subgroup of kids that meet legal definition of delinquency also meet definition of mental disorder o Psychological  Conduct problems seen as falling on a continuous dimension of externalizing bx  1 or more SD above the mean : conduct problems  Externalizing bx consisting of related but independent sub-dimensions:  Rule breaking bx  Aggressive bx  Overt/covert(lying) dimension  Destructive/non-destructive dimension o Psychiatric  Conduct problems viewed as distinct mental disorders based on DSM symptoms  DSM-iV-TR, conduct problems are described as persistent patterns of antisocial bx represented by categories of ODD and CD o Public Health  Blends legal, psychological and psychiatric perspective with public health concepts of prevention and intervention  Goal: reduce injuries, deaths, personal suffering, and economic costs associated with youth violence  Cuts across all disciplines Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)  Age- inappropriate, stubborn, hostile, and defiant bx  Usually appears by age 8  Bx include (have to last at least 6 month and must have at least 4) o Lose of temper easily o Argumentative o Actively defy orders give by authority figures and refuse to comply with requests o Purposely annoy other ppl o Blame others for their bx or mistakes o Touchy - easily annoyed by things o Anger o Resentfulness o Spiteful and vindictive  Many bx are common in young kids, severe/age-inappropriate ODD bx can have extremely negative effects on parent child interactions o 75% of preschoolers referred to clinic from low -income families meet the DSM criteria for ODD o At high risk for developing secondary problems like mood, anxiety, impulse control disorders  Bx have to be bad enough that it causes problems Conduct Disorder (CD)  Repetitive, persistent pattern of severe aggressive and antisocial acts that involve inflicting pain on others or interfering with the rights of others through physical/verbal aggression, stealing or acts of vandalism o Severe antisocial bx o May have co-occurring(comorbid) problems :ADHD, academic deficiencies, poor peer relations o Family child -rearing practices may contribute o Parents feel the kids are out of control and feel helpless to do anything about it  Age of onset: childhood-onset versus adolescent onset CD o Kids with childhood onset CD display at least one symptom before age of 10  More likely to be boys  More aggressive symptoms  Account for disproportionate amount of illegal activity  Persist in antisocial bx over time o Adolescent onset CD  Are as likely to be girls as boys  Don’t show the severity or psychopathology of the early onset group  Less likely to commit violent offenses or persist in their antisocial bx over time  Lasts for a period of years and then settles back down  CD and ODD have much overlap of symptoms o Although most cases of CD are preceded by ODD and most kids with CD continue to display ODD symptoms, most kids with ODD do not progress to more severe CD  CD and Antisocial Personality disorder o APD: pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others; involvement in multiple illegal bx o As many as 40% of kids with CD later develop APD o Adults with APD may display psychopathy; a pattern of callous, manipulative, deceitful, remorseless behavior o Signs of lack of conscience occur in some kids as young as 3-5 years o Subgroups of kids with cd are at risk for extreme antisocial and aggressive acts; display callous and unemotional interpersonal style Associated characteristics (CD)  Cognitive and verbal deficits o Although most kids with conduct problems have normal IQ, they score nearly 8 points lower than peers o Greater deficit for kid with the childhood onset o Verbal IQ consistently lower than performance IQ o Deficits present before conduct problems and may increase risk o Deficits in executive functioning related to failure to consider future implications of their bx and its impact on others  May be due to co-occuring ADHD  School and learning problems o Underachievement, grade retention, special ed placement, dropout, suspension and expulsion o Common factor may underlie both conduct problem s and school difficulties o SES disadvantage o Early language deficits may cause communication difficulties, which may increase conduct problems in school o Relationship between conduct problems and underachievement is firmly established by teens  Self-esteem deficits o Low self-esteem is not the primary cause of conduct problems  Instead problems are related to inflated and unstable and/or tentative view of self  Peer problems o Verbal and physical aggression towards peer; poor social skills o Often rejected by peers although some are popular  Kids rejected in primary grades are 5 times more likely to display conduct problems as teens  Some become bullies  Often form friendships with other antisocial peers  Underestimate own aggression, overestimate others' aggression towards them;  Reactive-aggressive kids display hostile attributional bias; attribute negative intent to others  Proactive-aggressive kids view their aggressive actions as positive  Family problems o General family disturbances (eg mental health problems, family history of antisocial bx, marital discord, etc) o Specific disturbances in parenting practices and family functi
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.