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Lecture 8

ECO 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Nephritis, Renal Osteodystrophy, Iga Nephropathy

9 pages42 viewsSpring 2018

Department
Economics (ECON)
Course Code
ECO 100
Professor
aaaa
Lecture
8

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Module 9 Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract
Amount of blood kidneys filter per day = 1700L
Amount of urine filtered from 1700L blood per day = 1L
Percentage of blood kidneys receive from the heart = 25%
3 main functions of the kidney =
1. Elimination of waste from blood
2. Homeostasis
3. Hormonal activity
Primary role of kidney = to filter blood
Elimination of waste from blood = eg. drugs, toxins, poisons, metabolic waste products
Homeostasis = maintenance and regulation of:
1. Serum electrolyte concentrations (eg. Na)
2. Water balance
3. pH level in the blood
4. blood pressure (through Na+ and water balance, renin production)
hormonal activity =
1. renin production regulate BP
2. regulation of vitamin D activity, by converting vit. D precursors to a more active
form (affects Ca++ absorption/metabolism)
3. Release of a erythropoietin hormone that stimulates red blood cell (RBC)
production in bone marrow
General anatomy of kidney = paired organs surrounded by a supporting and insulating
layer of fat
Anatomic Location of kidney = In the connective tissue behind the abdominal cavity
(retroperitoneum) just below the level of the 12th ribs
Relative size and weight of kidneys = 11cm long and ~150g
What shape can the kidney be associated w? = a bean
Parts of the kidney =
1. Hilum
2. Renal cortex and renal medulla
3. Renal pyramids
4. Collecting ducts
5. Renal pelvis
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Hilum = concave middle aspect of the kidney where blood vessels, nerves, and the
urinary tract enter
Renal cortex = OUTER 1/3 of the kidney; location of glomeruli; filtration occurs here
Kidney filtration occurs in what part of the kidneys = renal cortex
The glomerulus is located in what part of the kidney = renal cortex
Medulla = INNER 2/3 of the kidney; consists of 10 or more renal pyramids
Renal pyramids = base face renal cortex, tips contain small openings of collecting ducts
part of the pyramids that face the renal cortex = base
part of the pyramids that contain small openings of collecting ducts = tips
collecting ducts = empty urine into renal pelvis
renal pelvis = sac-like space within kidney that receive urine from collecting ducts
urine is propelled from each kidney through the ureter via = rhythmic contractions
Parts of the urinary tract =
1. Ureter
2. Bladder
3. Urethra
Ureter = 25cm long muscular tubes that run from collecting ducts of kidney to bladder
Where do the ureters insert in the bladder = at the base (“trigone” area of bladder)
Bladder = a hollow muscular reservoir for urine
Capacity of bladder = 500mL
Urethra = hollow muscular tube that runs from bladder to urethral opening, where urine
is emptied out of the body
Relative length of urethra in men vs women = men have a longer urethra (~20cm) than
women (~4cm)
Clinical significance of length = women have a higher incidence of urinary tract infection
(UTI) and urinary incontinence bc they have shorter urethras (therefore, infection travels
faster throughout urethra)
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Which male organ does the urethra pass through? = prostrate
Prostate = walnut-shaped organ located below the bladder that plays a role in sexual fn
Major cause of urinary obstruction in older man = enlargement of prostrate
Functional filtration unit of kidneys = glomerulus
Glomerulus = bunch of specialized capillaries that filter blood; fenestrations increase
passage of fluid from vascular space
Fenestrations = sieve-like holes in glomerulus; increases permeability of fluid
Arrangement of glomerulus = ball of capillaries lined by a set of specialized epithelial
cells, which are continuous w Bowman’s capsule
Bowman’s capsule = lined by epithelial cells that surround glomerulus
Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) = dense protein mesh that surround capillaries
of the glomerulus; small molecules are allowed to pass through, while large serum
proteins and other blood components are prevented from leaving vessels (selective)
Other component of GBM = negatively charged molecules that repel negatively charged
proteins in the blood such as albumin
2 functions of GBM =
1. Physical barrier
2. Charge barrier
Damage to GBM = associated with glomerular kidney disease
Podocytes = epithelial cells that surround the capillaries of the glomerulus; have finger-
like processes
Blood filtration steps =
1. Fenestrations
2. GBM
3. Podocyte slits
4. Bowman’s capsule
LONGGGGGGGG tubes (in order of filtered fluid) =
1. Proximal convoluted tubule
2. Loop of henle
3. Distal convoluted tubule
4. Collecting ducts
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