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Lecture 5

PSY 302 Lecture 5: SOC362 LECT 5

16 Pages
60 Views
Fall 2016

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY302
Professor
Adam Fikis
Lecture
5

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10/7/2016 7:11:00 PM
Social culture and social structure effect things. Culture also effects, but
when think of culture we see 1)belief, 2) cultural tightness has a lot in
common with conformity. Tight cultures are not open to deviance. Open
cultures are more open minded
Tight cultures: less likely to promote women as leaders, unless those norms
suppoer opportunity for both genders.
-Tigher cultures make ppl more resistant to chaging traditionally held
practices, such as always promoting men.
ex. in neuzeland, there was a higher female leadership compared to tight
cultures as pakistand.
Cultural tightness is advantageous too. Ex. Norways also emphasized
cultural equality, tightness thus helps to promote women.
-explains why a calling company has more success of hiring and promoting
women than in Germany, which has cultural tightness.
SOC 362 SEX, GENDER, & WORK
Session #5 -- ORGANIZATIONS
Readings:
Reeves: ch. 4
Fox: myth 1, myth 3
“Land of the Wasted Talent”
MEDIA ITEM
WHERE WE ARE
TODAY’S ISSUE
Today’s Objectives: Know…
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Trends in women as senior managers and other managers
The two promotion models & how they affect women
The glass ceiling effect and its causes
Rosabeth Kanter’s contribution
Organizational causes of lower female promotion rates
The components of organization gender culture
The “career interruptions” issue
Terms to Know
authority problem
glass ceiling
promotion ladder
seniority
merit
within-occupation gender segregation
homophily
organization gender culture
gender labelling
organizational climate
systemic discrimination
MANAGERS & SENIOR MANAGERS
The question: do organization promote women to upper positions less than
men? This is one of the 6 problems talked about in class, also is the glass
ceiling, it means women get promoted up until a point, then hit a point
where they can’t get above their role. The debate is, what causes it?
Organizations or women? Media “lean in book” talks about women needing
to work harder.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Senior Managers by Sex (Thousands)
Situation in Canada: the numbers of women has stayed constant, men on
the other hand have fluctuated a lot more, and the tendency is more sharply
to go down.
# of males fluctuates more, declined.
womens steady until a small decline in 2009.
NOTE:
1.
2.
3.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
Males
Females
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find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
find more resources at oneclass.com 10/7/2016 7:11:00 PM Social culture and social structure effect things. Culture also effects, but when think of culture we see 1)belief, 2) cultural tightness has a lot in common with conformity. Tight cultures are not open to deviance. Open cultures are more open minded Tight cultures: less likely to promote women as leaders, unless those norms suppoer opportunity for both genders. -Tigher cultures make ppl more resistant to chaging traditionally held practices, such as always promoting men. ex. in neuzeland, there was a higher female leadership compared to tight cultures as pakistand. Cultural tightness is advantageous too. Ex. Norways also emphasized cultural equality, tightness thus helps to promote women. -explains why a calling company has more success of hiring and promoting women than in Germany, which has cultural tightness. SOC 362 – SEX, GENDER, & WORK Session #5 -- ORGANIZATIONS Readings: Reeves: ch. 4 Fox: myth 1, myth 3 “Land of the Wasted Talent” MEDIA ITEM WHERE WE ARE TODAY’S ISSUE Today’s Objectives: Know… find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Trends in women as senior managers and other managers The two promotion models & how they affect women The glass ceiling effect and its causes Rosabeth Kanter’s contribution Organizational causes of lower female promotion rates The components of organization gender culture The “career interruptions” issue Terms to Know authority problem glass ceiling promotion ladder seniority merit within-occupation gender segregation homophily organization gender culture gender labelling organizational climate systemic discrimination MANAGERS & SENIOR MANAGERS The question: do organization promote women to upper positions less than men? This is one of the 6 problems talked about in class, also is the glass ceiling, it means women get promoted up until a point, then hit a point where they can’t get above their role. The debate is, what causes it? Organizations or women? Media “lean in book” talks about women needing to work harder. find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Senior Managers by Sex (Thousands) 90 80 70 60 50 Males 40 Females 30 20 10 0 20000010020030040050600700800901001101201314015 Situation in Canada: the numbers of women has stayed constant, men on the other hand have fluctuated a lot more, and the tendency is more sharply to go down. # of males fluctuates more, declined. womens steady until a small decline in 2009. NOTE: 1. 2. 3. find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Females as Percent of Senior Managers 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 This shows that it is fluctuated overtime, but the general trend is definitely going up. Compare with women in non senior management positions. NOTE: 1. 2. 3. find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com 4. Female Percentage of Non-Senior Managers 40.0 35.0 30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 not much change. Starts in 2000 with 37% and ends in 2015 as the same. Overall about a (30%) third of women are senior managers,a nd 37% of other managers are women. NOTE 1. find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com 2. 3. PROMOTIONS Major way to get ahead is to get promoted. For many ppl you get promoted within the same company. Other way to do it is going to a better job in a different organization. Promotions vs. Changing Jobs The Promotion Ladder -lower jobs have lower status, less money. Each promotion is a step up in terms of money and status. Two Promotion Models 1) The Seniority Model find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com all that matters is show long you’ve been in your present job. The longer you’re there, the better your chances of getting promoted. Often used in lower level promotions. Not ambigious, not based on gender and age, but based on time you’ve been in company. This is what union prefer, as it takes away discrimination. Employees like this model because of the fairness. 2)The Merit Model you get promoted based on how well you do your job. Consistent with Waber who wrote about beuracracies. He saw this as rational, as someone who does the jobs best. Used in higher level promotions and non union jobs. Preffered by individual workers, as they are recognized and their hard work pays off. -But this involved measuring merit, who is better? This is a problem, as job performance reviews are often problematic, especiallyw hen the job is problematic and tough. Its overall hard to come up with an overall decision on how well someone is doing a job. Those who do project teams also messes it up, as its hard to separate out each ind Women and the Promotion Models -Seniority looks like it would work best for owmen, as there is less bias. The problem hwoever is that the seniority model favours employyes with a history of continues and stable employment. It favour men as they don’y quit or take leave when they have a job. Promotions based on merit avoids that, but allows for bias and discrimination. Also if you’re job depends on teamwork, it’s hard to recognize indv contributions. find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com WOMEN and AUTHORITY PROMOTIONS The Glass Ceiling within-occupation gender segregation -we saw that most industrial countries have vertical sex segregation, women are underrepresensted in high position and high pay jobs. Women can get promoted but only to a certain point. Even inside a good occupation, women are likely to be lower level managers/law partners. A new report a uoft confimed that students are okay with women assistant professors, professors at the top ar
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