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Lecture 2

PSY302 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: 6 Years, Garra, Care Work

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Adam Fikis

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SOC362 LECT 2 9/16/2016 3:00:00 PM
shows us how many people are working and which genders are working
Test mc/ 25 questions and 25 minutes. Covers last week and this week.
-more women in boards of directors and more women in senior role.
Companies had to do that or explain why they haven’t. Today: no
improvement on womens role in Canada’s boardrooms. It has actually gone
-despite the new reulations, why are we seeing more women in board of
reports on no change:
1) Time: hoping that the changes haven’t accured simply because its been
only a year.
2) policies have emerged but are not aimed at gender diversity. Cpmanies
state that gender is not their focus in diversity
3) Companies don’t like targets:
4) Size: bigger companies are more liely to take in policies and gender
diversity, smaller companies however are less likely to adopt policies and
gender diversity.
1) Labour force: anyone in a job or actively looking for a job.
devided pop in 3 groups
-unemployed= no job but actively looking
-Inactive: no job and not looking.
Labour force: employed and unemployed.
Participation rate: people active in the countries economy. Participation
rate= labour force/all those 15+
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How do you interpret participation rate: tells us about social attitudes about
working. Low part by women means that women are not enclined to work.
Cuase could be economic reason, such as low supply of jobs.
2nd reason is social culture: having the belief that women should stay home
and look after kids.
-Particpation counts for paid work.
unpaid work: females carework.
cutback on jobs: companies looking for volunteer workers. We lack stats on
informal colunteer work, such as helping neighbours plant.
Other rate: employmenet rate: only counts those who have a job. Better
measure of how business are contributing to the economy by offering jobs.
2nd aspect of employmenyt rate is who is getting hired, such as genders,
ages, races.
how are women doing in terms of participating in the economy.
participation rate is
-61.2 by women. Part rate for men is higher by 9%.
How have things changed?
Recent Changes in Participation Rates
Long Term Female LF Participation
-female participation rates have sky rocketed since 1901. Conclusion? Over
the long term womens labour force participation has increased. Mens not so
much. Womens story goes to post inductrializition. Recently however it has
remained the same or slightly lower
International Comparisons of Participation Rates
Recently retirement age has changed.
sweden: diff b/w male part and female is low. Iceland also has smallest diff
b/w male and female part rates (Sweden and Iceland and northern
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countries) . Canada is a part fo 2nd groups, modern countries. Something
about the English language and culture tends be a dereminant.
3rd groups. Japan and Italy are both developed but are male dominant
cultures. Mexico is less developed but is male oriented.
The three differences:
1. GAP (difference between and women)
2. LONGITUDINAL/OVERTIME DIFF. womens rates in Canada has increased a
lot overtime. (diff in the past for women and today)
3. Diff across countries.
Immidiate causes for differences:
1. Child Rearing
Mostly a female job, caring for children results in pulling out of the labour
force. Complicating since youre economic needs increase when your have a
child, yet you pull out of labour force. Data shows that If your 15 to 44 and
if your married, youre likely to be married. Single mothers who are caring
for children pull out of labour force. Finding is that there is something about
-findings daycare is hard, this women stay home and watch their children
2. Economy & Industrialization
-With industrialization, the service sector jobs that are attractive to women,
don’t pay much, but are clean, urban center and are easy to get into.
-Nursing is a job that requires lifting people.
economic cycles short term: healthy economy means pleple are getting
hired. If men can’t fill them all, then women will fill them, such as
construction jobs.
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