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Lecture 7

PSY 302 Lecture 7: Chapter 11: Attachment to Others and Development of Self

12 Pages
84 Views
Winter 2016

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY302
Professor
Dana Williams
Lecture
7

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Week 8 (Chapter 11) Attachment
to others and development of the
self
Themes for attachment
- Nature and nurture
- Sociocultural context
- Individual differences
- Children’s welfare
Sense of self
- Nature and nurture
- Individual differences
- Sociocultural context
- Active child
oTrying to figure out everything actively; learning as you go
Caregiver-Child Attachment Relationship
- Noticed that children raised in orphanages didn’t develop an attachment with anybody,
had severe psychological problems
- Children with parents from war had severe psychological problems too
- Harry Harlow’s monkeys
oHe raised isolated monkeys
oAt 6 months, he put them in a cage with normal monkeys. They had severe social
and psychological problems
oThey would spend the time alone, will bite and rock themselves nonstop
oCould not communicate with other monkeys and/or learn from them
oFemale monkeys had no interest in sex
Got artificially impregnated
oImportant for babies to have an attachment with their caregiver otherwise they
will develop social and psychological problems
1. Bowlby’s Attachment Theory
oSecure base
Attachment with caregiver gives baby a secure base
Baby is more inclined to explore the environment because they can look
back at their caregiver who watches after them
oStages of attachment
Preattachment (birth – 6 weeks)
Do not have enough cognitive development to develop an
attachment yet
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Baby often cries but comforted by caregiver
Attachment in the making (6 weeks – 6-8 months)
Baby figuring out trust vs mistrust with caregiver
oE.g. change diaper, feed when needed
Baby prefers primary caregiver but also enjoy other people
Clear-cut attachment (6-8 months – 1 ½ years)
Gets upset when baby is not with caregiver
If older, baby might start crying
Start to get separation anxiety
Use caregiver as secure base
Reciprocal relationships (1 ½ - 2 years)
Understand parents’ feelings, motives, goals
Baby takes more active goal in developing relationship
If you develop a good secure attachment in this stage, you will still
have a good relationship and trust with other people for a long
time
oInternal working models
Mental idea in your head about yourself, caregiver, and other people
Based on what you learned (trust vs mistrust)
E.g. am I worthy or not worthy of love and care?
E.g. are other people trustworthy?
Will influence expectations about future relationships
E.g. if you will develop good relationships with other or you can’t
trust others
Romantic relationships, family relationships, etc.
Important to have positive internal working models about yourself and
others
2. Individual Difference in Attachment
oMary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation
Used 1yo
Mother would bring baby into a strange room
Wanted to see if the baby will use the mother as a secure base
if they did, baby will explore and look around
if they didn’t, baby will just be scared and not do anything
Stranger comes into room and see how baby reacts
Mother leaves room and leaves baby with stranger and see how baby
reacts
Mother comes back in and see how the baby reacts
Stranger leaves
Mother comes back, stranger leaves
See how baby reacts
Measurement of Attachment Security
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Secure attachment (60% of 1yo Caucasian North American
infants)
oUse mother as secure base
oStranger comes in, baby is okay if mother is still there
oMother leaves, baby gets upset
oMother comes back, baby runs to mother and get
comforted by mother and feel okay
Insecure/resistant attachment (9%)
oDon’t use mother as secure base
oStranger comes in, baby is weary of stranger and nervous
oMother leaves, baby gets way more upset
oMother comes back, baby stays near mother but seems
angry at her for leaving
Insecure/avoidant attachment (15%)
oBaby doesn’t care when mother leaves or comes back
oCan either be sociable or avoidant with strangers
Insecure/disorganized/disoriented attachment (15%)
oWorst kind
oBaby was maltreated or had mothers with bad attachment
problems
oBaby was most insecure, most upset when mother left
oMother comes back, baby acted disoriented
Go to mother and stop, look disoriented and scared
of mother
oOnly works with 1yo because 2yo are more used to
strangers
oAdults: asked questions about attachment with parents
oFactors that affect children’s attachment
Parent’s attachment history – adult attachment inventory
Autonomous or secure
oCan recall positive and negative features of their
relationship with parents
oCan discuss relationship in consistent or coherent manner
oMothers here have kids that have secure attachment
Dismissing
oDoes not remember anything about relationships
oIf they do remember, they are inconsistent
oLess strong of a correlation
Preoccupied
oReally confused and angry about relationship with parents
oSuper caught up in all memories and super emotional
about it
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Description
Week 8 (Chapter 11) – Attachment to others and development of the self Themes for attachment - Nature and nurture - Sociocultural context - Individual differences - Children’s welfare Sense of self - Nature and nurture - Individual differences - Sociocultural context - Active child o Trying to figure out everything actively; learning as you go Caregiver-Child Attachment Relationship - Noticed that children raised in orphanages didn’t develop an attachment with anybody, had severe psychological problems - Children with parents from war had severe psychological problems too - Harry Harlow’s monkeys o He raised isolated monkeys o At 6 months, he put them in a cage with normal monkeys. They had severe social and psychological problems o They would spend the time alone, will bite and rock themselves nonstop o Could not communicate with other monkeys and/or learn from them o Female monkeys had no interest in sex  Got artificially impregnated o Important for babies to have an attachment with their caregiver otherwise they will develop social and psychological problems 1. Bowlby’s Attachment Theory o Secure base  Attachment with caregiver gives baby a secure base  Baby is more inclined to explore the environment because they can look back at their caregiver who watches after them o Stages of attachment  Preattachment (birth – 6 weeks)  Do not have enough cognitive development to develop an attachment yet  Baby often cries but comforted by caregiver  Attachment in the making (6 weeks – 6-8 months)  Baby figuring out trust vs mistrust with caregiver o E.g. change diaper, feed when needed  Baby prefers primary caregiver but also enjoy other people  Clear-cut attachment (6-8 months – 1 ½ years)  Gets upset when baby is not with caregiver  If older, baby might start crying  Start to get separation anxiety  Use caregiver as secure base  Reciprocal relationships (1 ½ - 2 years)  Understand parents’ feelings, motives, goals  Baby takes more active goal in developing relationship  If you develop a good secure attachment in this stage, you will still have a good relationship and trust with other people for a long time o Internal working models  Mental idea in your head about yourself, caregiver, and other people  Based on what you learned (trust vs mistrust)  E.g. am I worthy or not worthy of love and care?  E.g. are other people trustworthy?  Will influence expectations about future relationships  E.g. if you will develop good relationships with other or you can’t trust others  Romantic relationships, family relationships, etc.  Important to have positive internal working models about yourself and others 2. Individual Difference in Attachment o Mary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation  Used 1yo  Mother would bring baby into a strange room  Wanted to see if the baby will use the mother as a secure base  if they did, baby will explore and look around  if they didn’t, baby will just be scared and not do anything  Stranger comes into room and see how baby reacts  Mother leaves room and leaves baby with stranger and see how baby reacts  Mother comes back in and see how the baby reacts  Stranger leaves  Mother comes back, stranger leaves  See how baby reacts  Measurement of Attachment Security  Secure attachment (60% of 1yo Caucasian North American infants) o Use mother as secure base o Stranger comes in, baby is okay if mother is still there o Mother leaves, baby gets upset o Mother comes back, baby runs to mother and get comforted by mother and feel okay  Insecure/resistant attachment (9%) o Don’t use mother as secure base o Stranger comes in, baby is weary of stranger and nervous o Mother leaves, baby gets way more upset o Mother comes back, baby stays near mother but seems angry at her for leaving  Insecure/avoidant attachment (15%) o Baby doesn’t care when mother leaves or comes back o Can either be sociable or avoidant with strangers  Insecure/disorganized/disoriented attachment (15%) o Worst kind o Baby was maltreated or had mothers with bad attachment problems o Baby was most insecure, most upset when mother left o Mother comes back, baby acted disoriented  Go to mother and stop, look disoriented and scared of mother o Only works with 1yo because 2yo are more used to strangers o Adults: asked questions about attachment with parents o Factors that affect children’s attachment  Parent’s attachment history – adult attachment inventory  Autonomous or secure o Can recall positive and negative features of their relationship with parents o Can discuss relationship in consistent or coherent manner o Mothers here have kids that have secure attachment  Dismissing o Does not remember anything about relationships o If they do remember, they are inconsistent o Less strong of a correlation  Preoccupied o Really confused and angry about relationship with parents o Super caught up in all memories and super emotional about it o Less strong of a correlation  Unresolved/disorganized o Suffering from posttraumatic experiences of loss or abuse that they haven’t gotten over o Have striking lapses in reasoning  E.g. “my fault that she got cancer, I killed her” o Mothers here have kids that have unresolved/disorganized attachment  Quality of caregiving  Secure attachment: interactional synchrony between mother and baby o Interactional synchrony: when mother interacts with baby, there is synchrony  E.g. baby wants to play with mother, mother reacts accordingly o Can teach mothers how to interact appropriately with baby  Resistant attachment: mothers are inconsistent with their caregiving o Baby is clingy towards the mother but mother does not pay attention to baby’s needs most of the time o Sometimes the mother pays attention and reacts enthusiastically o Most of the time, not successful o Baby gets angry at mother because mother does not pay so much attention  Avoidant attachment: mother is unresponsive or overzealous o Mother might not want the baby o Baby avoids mother, mother does not get a response from baby o Overzealous: in-your-face mother  Mother gives too much attention to baby  E.g. baby wants to sleep, mother still wants to interact with baby  Baby gets avoidant  Disorganized attachment: depressed, physically abusive, neglects the baby  Genetic variations  Children with certain variant of gene associated with vulnerability to stress have less attachment security if they grew up in an institution o Whoever has one variant of the gene will have more attachment problems o No variant, fewer attachment problems  Gene associated with production of dopamine: If mother is suffering from trauma, loss, and stress o With variant, bad environment, you are more likely to get disorganized attachment o With variant, good mother with interactional synchrony (good environment), you are more likely to have secure attachment  Infant’s genes are influenced by the environment which influences the attachment with the parent  Culture variations  Different experiences with separation  E.g. Sweden/Germany: babies are more likely to have avoidant attachment than North America o Encourages kids to be more independent than kids in North America  E.g. Korea/Japan: more likely to have resistant attachment o Mothers would never leave babies, babies would not go to daycare o Fathers and attachment  Mothers are more likely to hold and soothe babies, change diapers, feed them, give them bath  Fathers are more likely to have more physical stimulation and play unusual and unpredictable games (more rough, aggressive interaction)  Only applies to North American cultures; different with other cultures  Children may have secure attachment but parents are going through divorce  Children can develop insecure attachment  Attachment is generally stable but can vary  Best: Children are better off when they have good secure attachment with both parents  Good: Children with 1 secure attachment (either mom/dad)  Worst: no secure attachment with either parent o Consequences of attachment quality  What happens with secure attachment = answer is whatever is positive  Cognitive Development  2yo o more complex exploratory behaviour o more enjoyment at problem solving o more high level symbolic play  9-15 years o more secure sense of self o higher grades – better student overall  Social Development  Secure o More positive emotions and empathy o More ability to initiate, respond to and sustain interactions with other people o More socially competent o More popular at 3 ½ yo o Follow up at 11yo – more social competence, self- confidence, spent more time with peers, more friends  Resistant: aggressive, hostile at ages 5, 7, 9 o Kids angry are mothers  Avoidant: depression, self-criticism at ages 5, 7, 9 o Parents are unresponsive o Kids feel lonely, depressed, criticize themselves  Disorganized: both depression and aggression at ages 5, 7, 9  Sense of Self  Securely attached 2 and 3yo showed greater self-knowledge than their insecurely attached peers, more aware of mother’s characteristics  6yo with Quax and Bix puppets o Give kid a Bix puppet o Securely attached kids made Bix answer in positive ways about themselves and able to acknowledge their less than perfect qualities o Resistant had no clear pattern o Avoidant tended to make themselves appear perfect o Disorganized had Bix make excessively negative comments about themselves Development of Conceptions of the Self - Charles Cooley: your sense of self is a reflection of what other people think about you 1. Self in Infancy o Infants don’t know the difference between themselves and their mothers o 2-4 months  Infants have a sense of their ability to control
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