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Lecture 7

PSY302 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Imaginary Audience, Joint Attention, Social Comparison Theory

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Dana Williams

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Week 8 (Chapter 11) Attachment
to others and development of the
Themes for attachment
- Nature and nurture
- Sociocultural context
- Individual differences
- Children’s welfare
Sense of self
- Nature and nurture
- Individual differences
- Sociocultural context
- Active child
oTrying to figure out everything actively; learning as you go
Caregiver-Child Attachment Relationship
- Noticed that children raised in orphanages didn’t develop an attachment with anybody,
had severe psychological problems
- Children with parents from war had severe psychological problems too
- Harry Harlow’s monkeys
oHe raised isolated monkeys
oAt 6 months, he put them in a cage with normal monkeys. They had severe social
and psychological problems
oThey would spend the time alone, will bite and rock themselves nonstop
oCould not communicate with other monkeys and/or learn from them
oFemale monkeys had no interest in sex
Got artificially impregnated
oImportant for babies to have an attachment with their caregiver otherwise they
will develop social and psychological problems
1. Bowlby’s Attachment Theory
oSecure base
Attachment with caregiver gives baby a secure base
Baby is more inclined to explore the environment because they can look
back at their caregiver who watches after them
oStages of attachment
Preattachment (birth – 6 weeks)
Do not have enough cognitive development to develop an
attachment yet
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Baby often cries but comforted by caregiver
Attachment in the making (6 weeks – 6-8 months)
Baby figuring out trust vs mistrust with caregiver
oE.g. change diaper, feed when needed
Baby prefers primary caregiver but also enjoy other people
Clear-cut attachment (6-8 months – 1 ½ years)
Gets upset when baby is not with caregiver
If older, baby might start crying
Start to get separation anxiety
Use caregiver as secure base
Reciprocal relationships (1 ½ - 2 years)
Understand parents’ feelings, motives, goals
Baby takes more active goal in developing relationship
If you develop a good secure attachment in this stage, you will still
have a good relationship and trust with other people for a long
oInternal working models
Mental idea in your head about yourself, caregiver, and other people
Based on what you learned (trust vs mistrust)
E.g. am I worthy or not worthy of love and care?
E.g. are other people trustworthy?
Will influence expectations about future relationships
E.g. if you will develop good relationships with other or you can’t
trust others
Romantic relationships, family relationships, etc.
Important to have positive internal working models about yourself and
2. Individual Difference in Attachment
oMary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation
Used 1yo
Mother would bring baby into a strange room
Wanted to see if the baby will use the mother as a secure base
if they did, baby will explore and look around
if they didn’t, baby will just be scared and not do anything
Stranger comes into room and see how baby reacts
Mother leaves room and leaves baby with stranger and see how baby
Mother comes back in and see how the baby reacts
Stranger leaves
Mother comes back, stranger leaves
See how baby reacts
Measurement of Attachment Security
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Secure attachment (60% of 1yo Caucasian North American
oUse mother as secure base
oStranger comes in, baby is okay if mother is still there
oMother leaves, baby gets upset
oMother comes back, baby runs to mother and get
comforted by mother and feel okay
Insecure/resistant attachment (9%)
oDon’t use mother as secure base
oStranger comes in, baby is weary of stranger and nervous
oMother leaves, baby gets way more upset
oMother comes back, baby stays near mother but seems
angry at her for leaving
Insecure/avoidant attachment (15%)
oBaby doesn’t care when mother leaves or comes back
oCan either be sociable or avoidant with strangers
Insecure/disorganized/disoriented attachment (15%)
oWorst kind
oBaby was maltreated or had mothers with bad attachment
oBaby was most insecure, most upset when mother left
oMother comes back, baby acted disoriented
Go to mother and stop, look disoriented and scared
of mother
oOnly works with 1yo because 2yo are more used to
oAdults: asked questions about attachment with parents
oFactors that affect children’s attachment
Parent’s attachment history – adult attachment inventory
Autonomous or secure
oCan recall positive and negative features of their
relationship with parents
oCan discuss relationship in consistent or coherent manner
oMothers here have kids that have secure attachment
oDoes not remember anything about relationships
oIf they do remember, they are inconsistent
oLess strong of a correlation
oReally confused and angry about relationship with parents
oSuper caught up in all memories and super emotional
about it
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