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Lecture 9

PSY 302 Lecture 9: Chapter 13: Peer Relationships

by OneClass964185 , Winter 2016
11 Pages
103 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY302
Professor
Dana Williams
Lecture
9

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Week 11 Peer Relationships
Themes:
- Individual differences
- Sociocultural context
- Nature and nurture
- Active child
- Continuity/discontinuity
- Children’s welfare
Piaget
- Peers contribute to child’s moral development
- More open towards peers than adults
- Children learn by themselves more
Vygotski
- Children learn best when cooperating and working together with others
Selman
- Kinds of friendships you develop are more important in developing good relationships in
the future
1. Characteristics of peer contacts
oWho is a peer?
Someone who has equal standing with you
Operating at similar levels of behavioural complexity
Could be someone older or younger as long as one peer adjust their
behaviour to suit the other peer’s behaviour
oWhat functions do peers serve?
Equal-status interactions
Interactions with someone your own age
Can teach you what other people’s views and perspectives are
and what they would put up with
Teaches you social skills
Mixed-age interactions
Older peer learns compassion, caregiving skills, prosocial
behaviour, assertiveness, leadership skills; especially useful for
younger siblings to learn this
Younger peer learns older peer’s skills, to seek assistance, to defer
gracefully to more powerful peers, social skills, intellectual skills;
especially useful for older siblings to learn this
Frequency of peer contacts
You spend more time with peers, less time with parents
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You tend to spend less time with people your own age and more
time with older peers
Gender segregation
oPreschools are more likely to play together
oElementary “cooties”
oBoys in squads, girls in pairs
oHow important are peer influences?
Harlow’s work with monkeys
Mother-only monkeys
oFailed to develop normal patterns of social behaviour;
aggressive towards other monkeys their own age
Raised monkeys together with the same peer group, and never
with their mother
oNot aggressive towards monkeys in their peer group,
aggressive towards other peers
Need secure base with caretakers and other peers to develop
social skills
Nazi concentration camp children
6 3 year olds who were living by themselves in the camp
Parents had been sentenced to death
Other adults in the camp tried to take care of them but then died
after too
Children only had themselves
They broke everything
Indifferent and unhostile towards others
They cared about their peer group more than they cared about
themselves
Rehabilitated: more positive towards others, developed social
skills, learned to get better
Children rejected by their peers
During elementary: more likely to drop out of school, more likely
to be involved in criminal activities, more serious psychological
difficulties in adolescence and adulthood
Important to be accepted by peers and develop a good
relationship with other peers
2. Functions of friendships among peers
oSupport and validation
More friends = less lonely
Chronic friendlessness predicts internalizing problems (keep everything
bottled up inside, depression, loneliness, anxiety, social withdrawal)
Helps to have friends during transitions in life
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E.g. going into grade 9: less stressful for you if you knew friends
going into the same class
Friends help you if bullies are picking on you
At 16, girls report that friends are more helpful in providing confidence
and support than parents
oDevelopment of social and cognitive skills
Preschoolers are supposed to keep playing to develop their cognitive
development
Helps with social skills, cooperation, and negotiation when you’re with
friends
Leads to better perspective taking
More likely to notice your friend’s perspective
Work that you do is at a higher level cognitively and creatively when you
work with friends
oGender differences in the functions of friendships
Girls more than boys rely on friends for advice, help with homework, etc.
Girls get more support and validation from friends
Girls friendships are more intimate
Girls get more negative things
Rumination: talk over things repeatedly
Can reinforce anxiety and depression because they continue to
talk about everything all the time
Girls co-ruminate even on their own, boys actually do something
about it instead of just talking about it
Girls and boys fight equally, spend time together equally, have similar
amounts of conflict (but girls are more affected by it because they keep
ruminating)
3. Effects of friendships of psychological functioning and behaviour over time
oThe possible long-term benefits of having friends
Study looked at grade 5 children and followed them until age 23
Those who had reciprocated best friendships in 5th grade reported
higher levels of doing well in college, family, social life, higher self-
esteem
Did you already have those characteristics or did friendships cause you to
have those?
oThe possible costs of friendships
Aggression and disruptiveness
People who are very quick to anger and aggressive choose friends
who are like that which will reinforce their aggression
You aren’t aggressive and you get involved with aggressive people
which causes you to be aggressive
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Description
Week 11 – Peer Relationships Themes: - Individual differences - Sociocultural context - Nature and nurture - Active child - Continuity/discontinuity - Children’s welfare Piaget - Peers contribute to child’s moral development - More open towards peers than adults - Children learn by themselves more Vygotski - Children learn best when cooperating and working together with others Selman - Kinds of friendships you develop are more important in developing good relationships in the future 1. Characteristics of peer contacts o Who is a peer?  Someone who has equal standing with you  Operating at similar levels of behavioural complexity  Could be someone older or younger as long as one peer adjust their behaviour to suit the other peer’s behaviour o What functions do peers serve?  Equal-status interactions  Interactions with someone your own age  Can teach you what other people’s views and perspectives are and what they would put up with  Teaches you social skills  Mixed-age interactions  Older peer learns compassion, caregiving skills, prosocial behaviour, assertiveness, leadership skills; especially useful for younger siblings to learn this  Younger peer learns older peer’s skills, to seek assistance, to defer gracefully to more powerful peers, social skills, intellectual skills; especially useful for older siblings to learn this  Frequency of peer contacts  You spend more time with peers, less time with parents  You tend to spend less time with people your own age and more time with older peers  Gender segregation o Preschools are more likely to play together o Elementary “cooties” o Boys in squads, girls in pairs o How important are peer influences?  Harlow’s work with monkeys  Mother-only monkeys o Failed to develop normal patterns of social behaviour; aggressive towards other monkeys their own age  Raised monkeys together with the same peer group, and never with their mother o Not aggressive towards monkeys in their peer group, aggressive towards other peers  Need secure base with caretakers and other peers to develop social skills  Nazi concentration camp children  6 3 year olds who were living by themselves in the camp  Parents had been sentenced to death  Other adults in the camp tried to take care of them but then died after too  Children only had themselves  They broke everything  Indifferent and unhostile towards others  They cared about their peer group more than they cared about themselves  Rehabilitated: more positive towards others, developed social skills, learned to get better  Children rejected by their peers  During elementary: more likely to drop out of school, more likely to be involved in criminal activities, more serious psychological difficulties in adolescence and adulthood  Important to be accepted by peers and develop a good relationship with other peers 2. Functions of friendships among peers o Support and validation  More friends = less lonely  Chronic friendlessness predicts internalizing problems (keep everything bottled up inside, depression, loneliness, anxiety, social withdrawal)  Helps to have friends during transitions in life  E.g. going into grade 9: less stressful for you if you knew friends going into the same class  Friends help you if bullies are picking on you  At 16, girls report that friends are more helpful in providing confidence and support than parents o Development of social and cognitive skills  Preschoolers are supposed to keep playing to develop their cognitive development  Helps with social skills, cooperation, and negotiation when you’re with friends  Leads to better perspective taking  More likely to notice your friend’s perspective  Work that you do is at a higher level cognitively and creatively when you work with friends o Gender differences in the functions of friendships  Girls more than boys rely on friends for advice, help with homework, etc.  Girls get more support and validation from friends  Girls friendships are more intimate  Girls get more negative things  Rumination: talk over things repeatedly  Can reinforce anxiety and depression because they continue to talk about everything all the time  Girls co-ruminate even on their own, boys actually do something about it instead of just talking about it  Girls and boys fight equally, spend time together equally, have similar amounts of conflict (but girls are more affected by it because they keep ruminating) 3. Effects of friendships of psychological functioning and behaviour over time o The possible long-term benefits of having friends  Study looked at grade 5 children and followed them until age 23  Those who had reciprocated best friendships in 5 grade reported higher levels of doing well in college, family, social life, higher self- esteem  Did you already have those characteristics or did friendships cause you to have those? o The possible costs of friendships  Aggression and disruptiveness  People who are very quick to anger and aggressive choose friends who are like that which will reinforce their aggression  You aren’t aggressive and you get involved with aggressive people which causes you to be aggressive  If a person is not originally aggressive and get involved with aggressive people, aggression is more acceptable and you will become more aggressive as well  Did you already have those characteristics or did friendships cause you to have those?  Alcohol and substance abuse  Adolescence who starts drinking and smoking during the school year are involved with the same type of people  Substance use increases with friendships  High risk taker and you make friends with high risk takers  Did you already have those characteristics or did friendships cause you to have those? 4. The development of friendships o Friendship: intimate reciprocated positive relationship between 2 people o All ages choose friends based on:  Proximity  Live close to you, in the same class, etc.  Closeness in age  Gender (but less important during adolescence)  Racial or ethnic group  Difference in racial group = friendship won’t last o Friendships in infancy and toddlerhood – proximity most important  12-18 months  Peers are responsive toys  You don’t realize that other people have minds too  If you do this, people will laugh  18 months  More social interactions, imitation  E.g. Piaget: at 18 months you have deferred imitation  20-24 months  Verbal play  Start to talk more  2-2 ½ years  Play involves complementary roles  One person is chaser, other person is chasee  Changes due to secure attachment and cognitive development  Liked by other people when you have a secure attachment because you’re more confident with yourself o Friendships during preschool period – proximity still most important  Clear dominance hierarchy among members of a peer group  One leader in the group  Cognitive complexity of play predicts social competencies with peers  Kids that are liked the most are the ones that have more developed cognitive abilities  Pretend play occurs more frequently with friends than nonfriends  Rate of conflict is higher and better conflict resolution among friends than nonfriends o Friendships in middle childhood and adolescence – similarity of interests becomes more important in choice of friends, more intimacy  Peer groups (6-10 years)  E.g. soccer team, ballet friends, classmates  Interact on a regular basis  Provide a sense of belonging  Norms for dress, thinking, behaving  Often there is a leader (popular one), and others have roles o Boys: aggressive boy is the leader  Cliques (early adolescence) 3-10 members  Same sex members, by mid-adolescence includes opposite sex members  More stable as you get older  Put more pressure on you (if you do something wrong within your clique you will get in trouble) o E.g. bad fashion and they will criticize you  People within cliques tend to be similar o E.g. jocks, nerds,  Crowd – a set of similar-valued cliques  Labelled as belonging to a crowd  Could be harmful to you  Negative influences of cliques and crowds  More likely to be bad if your group smokes, drinks, does bad things  Adolescents who are more than willing to do what their peers do just for social acceptance are at risk  Authoritative less likely to be affected by peer pressure 5. Selman: discontinuous changes because of the increased ability to take another person’s perspective o Best friends  6-8 years  Live near and like to play with the same toys  Bad at role taking  9-12 years  Sharing feelings and helping each other  Better able to look at the other person’s perspective  Adolescence  Self-exploration and working out personal problems o Romantic relationships  Younger vs older adolescents  Younger o Drawn to characteristics that bring status o Is the person popular, stylish, etc.? o High status people have relationships, low status don’t  Older o Drawn to characteristics that enhance intimacy
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