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Lecture 10

PSY 302 Lecture 10: Chapter 14: Moral Development

by OneClass964185 , Winter 2016
12 Pages
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Winter 2016

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY302
Professor
Dana Williams
Lecture
10

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40 MC week 10-12
2/5 essay questions
Week 12 Moral Development
(Chapter 14)
Moral Judgment
- Can’t determine whether behaviour is moral or not unless you look at it in the person’s
perspective
Piaget’s Theory
- Stages are based on cognitive maturity and equal-status peer contacts to foster moral
growth
oRelationships with peers are more important than relationships with adults
1. Premoral period (under 5 years old)
oTalk to children about rules, asked them about it
oChildren did not have a good idea about rules, they believe the point of the game
is to just take turns and have fun
2. Stage of morality of constraint (5-7 years)
oPreoperational thought
oStrong respect for rules
oRules are sacred and unalterable (can never change rules)
oConsequences are more important than intentions when trying to figure out how
wrong an act is
First boy is called to dinner and he didn’t know there was a table with
cups by the door so he accidentally broke it
Second boy: parents are not around, he will sneak jam out and in the
process he breaks the cups
5-7 year old child will look into consequences will believe that the first
boy is naughtier and not take in intentions
oExpiatory punishment
Punishment for its own sake
For the crime – arbitrary (not planned for any particular reason)
oImmanent justice
If you do something wrong, you will always be punished
3. Transitional period between morality of constraint and autonomous morality (7-10
years)
oConcrete operational
oHave a lot of equal-status peer contact
oMore give and take when playing games
oYou realize that you can make rules for your games and change them
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oActively trying to figure out about moral decisions and how rules are constructed
4. Stage of moral relativism or autonomous morality (11 to adult)
oSocial rules are arbitrary agreements which can be changed
oCan change rules and violate rules in the service of human needs
Police officer was stuck in second stage
Doctor speeding in the highway to get to a surgery, police officer
stopped him and gave him a lecture about why he shouldn’t be
speeding
Should have changed the rules and gave him a police escort to
hospital
oIntentions more important than consequences
Will realize the second boy is naughtier
oReciprocal punishments
Punishment should fit the crime
oNo immanent justice
- Perspective role taking skills that you need to develop for cognitive development
- Equal-status contact with peers
oRealize that you can change rules and rules support purpose
If they don’t support purpose, you can change rules in order to support
the purpose
- Parents can impede cognitive development if they’re being authoritarian
Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory
- Do younger children ignore an actor’s intentions?
oStudy with 3 year olds
Picture of boy throwing a ball comic
Picture showing boy missed
Picture showing boy throwing it to other boy’s glove
Picture showing boy’s glove missed
oIf it’s clear, children will take intentions into account
- Do younger children respect all rules and adult authority?
oMoral rules
Welfare and rights of others
Don’t hit, cheat, steal
First stage children: will say it’s not okay even if adult say it’s okay
India: widow should never eat fish (believe it causes sexual desires)
Catholic: cannot eat meat on Friday during Lent or you will go to hell, you
have to go to church
oSocial-conventional rules
Rules for gay people
Can’t go to washroom without permission
Can’t eat in classroom
First stage children: child will say it’s okay if adult says nothing about it
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find more resources at oneclass.com
oPersonal preferences
Your choice of what color t-shirt to wear
Choice of friends
Choice of games you want to play
First stage children: child believes adult has no right to tell them their
preferences
Canada: widow eats fish
Other religions can choose to go to church and eat what they want
- Do parents impede children’s moral development?
oPiaget: yes if authoritarian
oMore likely to be stuck in second stage like police officer
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
- Can give you moral dilemma and choose between them
- Should you follow law or go against law for human need?
- Invariant stages
- Qualitative differences in your thinking
Level 1: Preconventional morality
- Follow rules to avoid punishment or obtain rewards
- What is right/personally satisfying is what you can get away with
- Don’t consider the interest of others, only your POV and what you can get out of it
- Stage 1: punishment and obedience orientation
oObey to avoid punishment
oYou think that act is not wrong if it’s undetected or unpunished
oThe greater harm done/punishment, the worse the act is
- Stage 2: naïve hedonism
oConform to rules to gain rewards
oScratch my back I’ll scratch yours
o“I’ll tell on him so I can get a reward”
o“I’m not going to tell because he’s good for our family”
Level 2: conventional morality
- Strive to obey rules and social norms to win approval or to maintain social order
- Take perspective of other people
- Stage 3: good boy/girl orientation
oPleases, helps, approved of others
oActions are based on intentions rather than consequences
o“I’m gonna turn him in because what would people think of me if I didn’t”
- Stage 4: social-order-maintaining morality
oConsider society’s laws
oRules and laws are to maintain social order
oIf we didn’t have this, the whole society is ruined
oLaws always transcend personal interest
Can’t take personal preferences
Level 3: postconventional or principled morality
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Description
40 MC week 10-12 2/5 essay questions Week 12 – Moral Development (Chapter 14) Moral Judgment - Can’t determine whether behaviour is moral or not unless you look at it in the person’s perspective Piaget’s Theory - Stages are based on cognitive maturity and equal-status peer contacts to foster moral growth o Relationships with peers are more important than relationships with adults 1. Premoral period (under 5 years old) o Talk to children about rules, asked them about it o Children did not have a good idea about rules, they believe the point of the game is to just take turns and have fun 2. Stage of morality of constraint (5-7 years) o Preoperational thought o Strong respect for rules o Rules are sacred and unalterable (can never change rules) o Consequences are more important than intentions when trying to figure out how wrong an act is  First boy is called to dinner and he didn’t know there was a table with cups by the door so he accidentally broke it  Second boy: parents are not around, he will sneak jam out and in the process he breaks the cups  5-7 year old child will look into consequences will believe that the first boy is naughtier and not take in intentions o Expiatory punishment  Punishment for its own sake  For the crime – arbitrary (not planned for any particular reason) o Immanent justice  If you do something wrong, you will always be punished 3. Transitional period between morality of constraint and autonomous morality (7-10 years) o Concrete operational o Have a lot of equal-status peer contact o More give and take when playing games o You realize that you can make rules for your games and change them o Actively trying to figure out about moral decisions and how rules are constructed 4. Stage of moral relativism or autonomous morality (11 to adult) o Social rules are arbitrary agreements which can be changed o Can change rules and violate rules in the service of human needs  Police officer was stuck in second stage  Doctor speeding in the highway to get to a surgery, police officer stopped him and gave him a lecture about why he shouldn’t be speeding  Should have changed the rules and gave him a police escort to hospital o Intentions more important than consequences  Will realize the second boy is naughtier o Reciprocal punishments  Punishment should fit the crime o No immanent justice - Perspective role taking skills that you need to develop for cognitive development - Equal-status contact with peers o Realize that you can change rules and rules support purpose  If they don’t support purpose, you can change rules in order to support the purpose - Parents can impede cognitive development if they’re being authoritarian Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory - Do younger children ignore an actor’s intentions? o Study with 3 year olds  Picture of boy throwing a ball comic  Picture showing boy missed  Picture showing boy throwing it to other boy’s glove  Picture showing boy’s glove missed o If it’s clear, children will take intentions into account - Do younger children respect all rules and adult authority? o Moral rules  Welfare and rights of others  Don’t hit, cheat, steal  First stage children: will say it’s not okay even if adult say it’s okay  India: widow should never eat fish (believe it causes sexual desires)  Catholic: cannot eat meat on Friday during Lent or you will go to hell, you have to go to church o Social-conventional rules  Rules for gay people  Can’t go to washroom without permission  Can’t eat in classroom  First stage children: child will say it’s okay if adult says nothing about it o Personal preferences  Your choice of what color t-shirt to wear  Choice of friends  Choice of games you want to play  First stage children: child believes adult has no right to tell them their preferences  Canada: widow eats fish  Other religions can choose to go to church and eat what they want - Do parents impede children’s moral development? o Piaget: yes if authoritarian o More likely to be stuck in second stage like police officer Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development - Can give you moral dilemma and choose between them - Should you follow law or go against law for human need? - Invariant stages - Qualitative differences in your thinking Level 1: Preconventional morality - Follow rules to avoid punishment or obtain rewards - What is right/personally satisfying is what you can get away with - Don’t consider the interest of others, only your POV and what you can get out of it - Stage 1: punishment and obedience orientation o Obey to avoid punishment o You think that act is not wrong if it’s undetected or unpunished o The greater harm done/punishment, the worse the act is - Stage 2: naïve hedonism o Conform to rules to gain rewards o Scratch my back I’ll scratch yours o “I’ll tell on him so I can get a reward” o “I’m not going to tell because he’s good for our family” Level 2: conventional morality - Strive to obey rules and social norms to win approval or to maintain social order - Take perspective of other people - Stage 3: good boy/girl orientation o Pleases, helps, approved of others o Actions are based on intentions rather than consequences o “I’m gonna turn him in because what would people think of me if I didn’t” - Stage 4: social-order-maintaining morality o Consider society’s laws o Rules and laws are to maintain social order o If we didn’t have this, the whole society is ruined o Laws always transcend personal interest  Can’t take personal preferences Level 3: postconventional or principled morality - Define right and wrong based on broad principles of justice which can conflict with laws or authority figures - Stage 5: social contract orientation o Laws are important, we all agree on them, we have an obligation to follow our laws but laws that compromise human rights are unjust o What is legal is different from what is moral - Stage 6: morality of individual principles of conscience o Not even considering laws o Human justice is all that matters Support for Kohlberg’s Theory - Are Kohlberg’s stages an invariant sequence? o Yes o Older people are the ones in the higher stages o Found that people were more like to be preconventional before high school, conventional during high school, postconventional after high school o Will regress: You are at a high stage then you cheat on a test, you will give a low level answer to explain your behaviour - Cognitive prerequisites for moral growth o From level 1-2 you need role taking ability o Level 2-3 you need formal operational thought  You think from concrete to abstract  Need relevant social experiences  Experiences that push you to think outside of the box - Parenting effects o Authoritarian parents = you think you have to follow all rules o Parents that reason = more likely to progress through stages - Peer interactions o Equal-status peer contact o Higher level people will push the lower level people up to their level o Higher level of reasoning - Advanced education o First year of uni: higher level of moral development than someone who doesn’t go to uni th o End of 4 year: gap gets bigger and bigger o Uni leads to cognitive development, exposed to diverse perspectives  Think about things and pushes you to think about things in different ways - Cultural influences o Living in complex, diverse, democratic society o Postconventional thinking o Rural, industrial = not diverse and democratic Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory - Culturally biased o Highest stages reflect Western ideal of justice individualism, individual rights o Communal societies never get to higher levels because they don’t think that way  Have sophisticated ideas of what’s moral and what’s not - Gender bias (Carol Gilligan) o She believes that men have higher level than women o Found that there are no differences  Morality of justice  Men are more likely to think this way  Decide what’s moral based on principles of justice  Morality of care  Women are more likely to think this way  Morality is caring and compassion for people  Not exploiting/hurting people - Does moral reasoning predict moral behaviour? o Yes and no o Young, low level of moral development = level doesn’t predict moral behaviour o Higher level = predicts moral behaviour o Not a perfect prediction; depends on your situation and characteristics - Kohlberg ignores moral emotions o Doesn’t talk about guilt, being proud of yourself, care, compassion o More rational, just cognitive stuff Eisenberg’s Theory – Prosocial Moral Judgment - Boy on sidewalk needing help, but you have a party to go to o Will you help or not? - Go through these stages faster rather than Kohlberg’s - Children at higher stages have higher prosocial behaviour Level 1: hedonistic, self-focused orientation - Preschoolers - What do you get out of it? - Will not do it because I want to go to the party - Will do it because I’ll get a reward for doing it Level 2: needs-based orientation - Little bit of knowledge about other person’s needs Level 3: approval and/or stereotyped orientation - People will think I’m a good person for helping the boy Level 4a: self-reflective empathic orientation - Looking at other people’s POV and the boy’s POV - Feeling guilt for helping/not helping boy Level 4b: transitional level Level 5: strongly internalized stage - Feel guilty for not helping - Feel good about yourself for helping Early Development of Conscience - Internal regulatory mechanism that increases a person’s ability to conform to standards of behaviour of their culture - Involved in emotions - Freud o Boy internalizes with father, girl internalizes with mother  Research shows he’s wrong, child identifies with both parents o He says child develops conscience at 6  Research shows child develops conscience at 2 Factors Affecting the Development of Conscience - Child goes into room with toys, one toy that they can’t play with, see if the child plays with the toy or not 1. Firm punishments administered immediately and consistently by warm parents (authoritative) 2. Praise for good behaviour 3. Reasonable standards for behaviour 4. Cognitive rationales explaining why the act was wrong o Giving any kind of punishment with the rationale 5. Convincing children that they can resist temptation because they are good, honest, and responsible o “I know you are a very good child” child will more likely do the right thing 6. Rule-following model if the model states the rule and gives a rationale for not performing the act o Another child goes into room ”I’m not going to play with the toy because they said it’s broken so I have to wait until they fix it so we can play with it” 7. If the child is persuaded to serve as a model to others o Younger child here, be a model for the child and not play with the toy 8. Secure parent-child relationship o Child is more likely to internalize parent’s values and take them as their own Who raises children who are morally mature? 1. Love withdrawal o Trying to do the right thing so the parents will keep on loving them 2. Power assertion o Get them to do what you want by spanking
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