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Lecture 10

PSY302 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Serotonin Transporter, Reuptake, Dopamine Receptor

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Dana Williams

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40 MC week 10-12
2/5 essay questions
Week 12 Moral Development
(Chapter 14)
Moral Judgment
- Can’t determine whether behaviour is moral or not unless you look at it in the person’s
Piaget’s Theory
- Stages are based on cognitive maturity and equal-status peer contacts to foster moral
oRelationships with peers are more important than relationships with adults
1. Premoral period (under 5 years old)
oTalk to children about rules, asked them about it
oChildren did not have a good idea about rules, they believe the point of the game
is to just take turns and have fun
2. Stage of morality of constraint (5-7 years)
oPreoperational thought
oStrong respect for rules
oRules are sacred and unalterable (can never change rules)
oConsequences are more important than intentions when trying to figure out how
wrong an act is
First boy is called to dinner and he didn’t know there was a table with
cups by the door so he accidentally broke it
Second boy: parents are not around, he will sneak jam out and in the
process he breaks the cups
5-7 year old child will look into consequences will believe that the first
boy is naughtier and not take in intentions
oExpiatory punishment
Punishment for its own sake
For the crime – arbitrary (not planned for any particular reason)
oImmanent justice
If you do something wrong, you will always be punished
3. Transitional period between morality of constraint and autonomous morality (7-10
oConcrete operational
oHave a lot of equal-status peer contact
oMore give and take when playing games
oYou realize that you can make rules for your games and change them
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oActively trying to figure out about moral decisions and how rules are constructed
4. Stage of moral relativism or autonomous morality (11 to adult)
oSocial rules are arbitrary agreements which can be changed
oCan change rules and violate rules in the service of human needs
Police officer was stuck in second stage
Doctor speeding in the highway to get to a surgery, police officer
stopped him and gave him a lecture about why he shouldn’t be
Should have changed the rules and gave him a police escort to
oIntentions more important than consequences
Will realize the second boy is naughtier
oReciprocal punishments
Punishment should fit the crime
oNo immanent justice
- Perspective role taking skills that you need to develop for cognitive development
- Equal-status contact with peers
oRealize that you can change rules and rules support purpose
If they don’t support purpose, you can change rules in order to support
the purpose
- Parents can impede cognitive development if they’re being authoritarian
Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory
- Do younger children ignore an actor’s intentions?
oStudy with 3 year olds
Picture of boy throwing a ball comic
Picture showing boy missed
Picture showing boy throwing it to other boy’s glove
Picture showing boy’s glove missed
oIf it’s clear, children will take intentions into account
- Do younger children respect all rules and adult authority?
oMoral rules
Welfare and rights of others
Don’t hit, cheat, steal
First stage children: will say it’s not okay even if adult say it’s okay
India: widow should never eat fish (believe it causes sexual desires)
Catholic: cannot eat meat on Friday during Lent or you will go to hell, you
have to go to church
oSocial-conventional rules
Rules for gay people
Can’t go to washroom without permission
Can’t eat in classroom
First stage children: child will say it’s okay if adult says nothing about it
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oPersonal preferences
Your choice of what color t-shirt to wear
Choice of friends
Choice of games you want to play
First stage children: child believes adult has no right to tell them their
Canada: widow eats fish
Other religions can choose to go to church and eat what they want
- Do parents impede children’s moral development?
oPiaget: yes if authoritarian
oMore likely to be stuck in second stage like police officer
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
- Can give you moral dilemma and choose between them
- Should you follow law or go against law for human need?
- Invariant stages
- Qualitative differences in your thinking
Level 1: Preconventional morality
- Follow rules to avoid punishment or obtain rewards
- What is right/personally satisfying is what you can get away with
- Don’t consider the interest of others, only your POV and what you can get out of it
- Stage 1: punishment and obedience orientation
oObey to avoid punishment
oYou think that act is not wrong if it’s undetected or unpunished
oThe greater harm done/punishment, the worse the act is
- Stage 2: naïve hedonism
oConform to rules to gain rewards
oScratch my back I’ll scratch yours
o“I’ll tell on him so I can get a reward”
o“I’m not going to tell because he’s good for our family”
Level 2: conventional morality
- Strive to obey rules and social norms to win approval or to maintain social order
- Take perspective of other people
- Stage 3: good boy/girl orientation
oPleases, helps, approved of others
oActions are based on intentions rather than consequences
o“I’m gonna turn him in because what would people think of me if I didn’t”
- Stage 4: social-order-maintaining morality
oConsider society’s laws
oRules and laws are to maintain social order
oIf we didn’t have this, the whole society is ruined
oLaws always transcend personal interest
Can’t take personal preferences
Level 3: postconventional or principled morality
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