BIOL 271 Lecture Notes - Simple Squamous Epithelium, Hyaline Cartilage, Epithelium

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9 Mar 2014
Department
Course
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Respiratory System
Respiratory System Anatomy
upper respiratory tract
superior to vocal cords
lower respiratory tract
inferior to vocal cords
Nose: External Portion
nasal bones and hyaline cartilage
covered with skin, lined with mucous membrane
openings called external nares
cavity within the skull
inferior to nasal bone, superior to mouth
functions:
warms, moistens air
filters air
gives resonance to voice
Nose: Internal Portion
roof formed by ethmoid and sphenoid bones
floor formed by maxilla and palatine bone
lined with pseudo stratified ciliated columnar epithelium with
goblet cells (respiratory epithelium/membrane)
olfactory epithelium houses receptors for smell
conchae (turbinate bones)
bony projections on lateral walls of internal nose
internal nares (choanae)
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openings to pharynx
Paranasal Sinuses
cavities in the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones
lighten skull
gives resonance to voice
Pharynx
funnel-shaped tube about 13 cm long
extend from internal nares to cricoid cartilage
functions:
passageway for air and food
resonating chamber fror speech production
tonsils (lymphatic tissue)in the walls protect against choking
potential problem: air and food crossing and mixing
stomach or lungs
3 regions:
nasopharynx
from internal nares to soft palate
openings for auditory (Eustachian) tubes in lateral
walls
adenoids (pharyngeal tonsils) in roof
passage way from only air
lined with respiratory epithelium
oropharynx
from soft palate to level of hyoid bone
opening to (fauces)
palatine and lingual tonsils
passageway for food and air
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lined with stratified squamous epithelium
laryngopharynx
from level of hyoid bone to cricoid cartilage
ends inferiorly as esophagus
passageway for food and air
lined with stratified squamous epithelium
Larynx
C4 to C6
consists of 3 single, 3 paired cartilages
structures:
hyoid bone
thyroid cartilage (Adam's apple)
cricoid cartilage (ring of cartilage attached to trachea)
epiglottis (leaf-shaped elastic cartilage)
covers glottis during swallowing
cuneiform cartilages
elastic cartilage
anterior to corniculates
support vocal folds and
corniculate cartilages
elastic cartilages at tip of each arytenoid
artenoid cartilages
hyaline cartilage
sit atop cricoid
move vocal cords
Vocal Cords
ventricular fold
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