BIOL 271 Lecture Notes - Bone Marrow, Hemopoietic Growth Factor, Urobilinogen

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13 Mar 2014
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The Cardiovascular System
Why do we need a cardiovascular (circulatory) system?
transportation
multicellular organisms: need diffusion
Transportation:
nutrients
gases (O2, CO2)
metabolic wastes
heat
biochemicals (hormones)
Subdivisions:
cardiovascular system
a series of tubes (blood vessels) filled with fluid (blood)
connected to a pump (heart)
lymphatic system
Cardiovascular System
Blood
functions:
transportation
regulation of:
pH (buffers)
body temp (constriction/dilation of surface
vessels)
ICF (intracellular fluid) volume (dissolved ions and
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proteins)
blood affects interstitial fluid, which affects
intracellular fluid (Starling's Law)
protection (WBC's, antibodies)
physical characteristics
5-6 L in adult male, 4-5 L in adult female
8% of total body weight
more viscous than water
temp~ 38 C
pH: 7.35-7.45
components
___% plasma proteins
synthesized in liver
don't leave bloodstream
___% other substances
electrolytes, nutrients, hormones, gases, waste
products
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Plasma Proteins
albumin
maintains blood
globulins (immunoglobulins, antibodies)
bind to foreign antigens, form antigen-antibody complexes
prothrombin and fibrinogen
clotting factors
Formed Elements of Blood
red blood cells (erythrocytes)
platelets (thrombocytes)
white blood cells (leukocytes)
granulocytes (end in "phil")
eosinophil
basophil
neutrophil
agranulocytes
monocyte
T lymphocyte (T cell)
B lymphocyte (B cell)
Natural killer (NK cell)
hematocrit (PCV)
ratio of red blood cell volume to amount of total blood
volume
discovered through centrifugation
normally 45% of blood is red blood cells
RBC clump together at bottom, then buffy coat of WBC +
platelets, then plasma
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