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Lecture 4

HIST 140 Lecture Notes - Dayton Agreement, Revolution Llc, Sniper Alley

5 Pages
52 Views
Fall 2014

Department
HIST
Course Code
HIST 140
Professor
J E F F Bull
Lecture
4

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Europe at the Cold War’s end
Unity and disunity
-Late 40s and 50s – European countries started to work together by integrating their trade and
forming an economic community
-Some countries tried to resist the European Union (i.e. England)
-France resisted complete European Unity
Growth of the European Community
-Extended the rules of the EEC
-Many governmental changes
-12 countries became a part of the EEC
-Worked together politically as well
oCommon values and standards
oMonetary units linked
European Commission headquarters
-Integrate countries
-Brussels, Belgium
-Regulate trade and commerce
Maastricht Treaty (1992)
-European Union instead of Community
-Partnership that Europe incorporated
-Citizenship and trade rules
-Customs union – allowing people to move countries
-Environmental policy
-Common market and agricultural policies
-Common Foreign and Security council
EU Admission criteria
1) Geographical Union
2) Democratic government
3) Market (capitalist) economy
Flocking to join the EU
-Get the newly independent states caught up – Sweden, Slovakia, Czech Republic…
-Wealth from EU leading countries going to the newly joined countries for reconstruction
-No divide between East and West anymore
Why is Turkey out?
Greece vetoed them out due to past differences between them
-Cyprus got in as Greece backed them up
-The “Euro” (2002 - ?)
-Common currency in Europe
oApart from some countries who did not want to give it up
-Standardizes everything
-No common constitution though
NATO Expansion and Alienation of Russia
-Many wanted to shut NATO down as it generates military spending
-Working against self defense
-Expanded to old “enemies” in Europe now
-Expansion has “threatened” Russia
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-Parallel force to the United Nations as it is more effective
-
Yugoslavia Implodes
Ethnic Nationalism and Civil War in the Balkans, 1990-1999
-The Former Yugoslavia
-Existed after World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
-It was a socialist state and a federation made up of six socialist republics
oSlovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro and Macedonia. Serbia,
oIncluded two independent provinces: Kosovo and Vojvodina.
-Slobodan Milosevic
-President of Serbia, 1987-2000
-Wanted to strengthen central power of the Serb-dominated federal institutions
-Franjo Tudjman
-President of Croatia, 1990-99
-Ethnic Divisions in Yugoslavia
-“ethnic cleansing”
-1991 – parts of Yugoslavia started to break off
-Ethnic clashes in Bosnia and Hercegovina
-March, 1992 – they became one country and expanded territories
General Ratko Miadic & Rodovan Kadzic
-Bosnian Serb leaders
-Military units created to create territory – “Srpska” – against Bosnian states
-Atmosphere of anything happening – no law and order
oUsed past differences to instigate
-Violent organizations devoted to bring destruction in Bosnia
Siege of Sarajevo (April 1992 – February 1996)
-Longest siege with 11500 people dead
-People were denied food and shelter
-“sniper alley”
-Shelling the city
Destruction of the Old Bridge, Mostar, Bosnia
-November, 1993
-Wanted division between the two sides
-Broke and destructed the bridge and showed it on television
Ethnic Cleansing in Bosnia (1993)
-Drove off the ethnic minorities
-Partitioning the countries
oAll sides did it
oBoundaries disappeared
Between warring Serbs and Croats
-UN tried to intervene and bring peace
-Canadians sent to Croatia and Serbia
-Medak – Autumn, 1993
Srebrenica Massacre (1995)
-Refugee haven, guarded by the Dutch army, set up by the UN
-Bosnian Serbs eliminated the population there
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Description
Europe at the Cold War’s end  Unity and disunity - Late 40s and 50s – European countries started to work together by integrating their trade and forming an economic community - Some countries tried to resist the European Union (i.e. England) - France resisted complete European Unity  Growth of the European Community - Extended the rules of the EEC - Many governmental changes - 12 countries became a part of the EEC - Worked together politically as well o Common values and standards o Monetary units linked  European Commission headquarters - Integrate countries - Brussels, Belgium - Regulate trade and commerce  Maastricht Treaty (1992) - European Union instead of Community - Partnership that Europe incorporated - Citizenship and trade rules - Customs union – allowing people to move countries - Environmental policy - Common market and agricultural policies - Common Foreign and Security council  EU Admission criteria 1) Geographical Union 2) Democratic government 3) Market (capitalist) economy  Flocking to join the EU - Get the newly independent states caught up – Sweden, Slovakia, Czech Republic… - Wealth from EU leading countries going to the newly joined countries for reconstruction - No divide between East and West anymore  Why is Turkey out? Greece vetoed them out due to past differences between them - Cyprus got in as Greece backed them up - The “Euro” (2002 - ?) - Common currency in Europe o Apart from some countries who did not want to give it up - Standardizes everything - No common constitution though  NATO Expansion and Alienation of Russia - Many wanted to shut NATO down as it generates military spending - Working against self defense - Expanded to old “enemies” in Europe now - Expansion has “threatened” Russia - Parallel force to the United Nations as it is more effective - Yugoslavia Implodes  Ethnic Nationalism and Civil War in the Balkans, 1990-1999 - The Former Yugoslavia - Existed after World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars. - It was a socialist state and a federation made up of six socialist republics o Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro and Macedonia. Serbia, o Included two independent provinces: Kosovo and Vojvodina. - Slobodan Milosevic - President of Serbia, 1987-2000 - Wanted to stre
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