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Lecture 7

HIST 140 Lecture Notes - Cultural Revolution, Maoism, Bourgeoisie

4 Pages
108 Views
Fall 2014

Department
HIST
Course Code
HIST 140
Professor
J E F F Bull
Lecture
7

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Japan after WWII
Embracing defeat
oTook their failure as an opportunity for change
Japanese empire at its height (1942)
oSuccessful dictatorship – military
oParliament with no power
oTerritorial control in parts of China – raw materials gained
oWar with China in the 1930s – tension with Americans at the time
oHad economic embargo towards Japan – particularly on oil
oJapan had Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia...
oWanted to go into a war with the US to stop them from intervening when it came to China
oPearl Harbour – strategically a failure
Ruins of Hiroshima (Aug, 1945)
oAtomic bombs dropped
oIncendiary bombs
oBurned wooden bridges
oJapan reduced to nothing
Under American Occupation (1945-52)
oAmericans occupied this nation to re-establish it
oLed by General Douglas Macarthur
oNew government established – new industries
oBuilt up Japan economically to be allies with the US
oNew relations with the Emperor, individual rights established
oConstitutional power, no state power for the Emperor
New Constitution (1947)
oDemocracy in their system
oBan on discrimination based on race, religion, gender
oUnions were established
oPeace clause – never fighting in a war ever again and also stated that they will give up their army
oJapan only has a small self defense force
Pop Culture effects
oThe American occupation brought in consumer goods
oJapanese “sponged” their culture
oSocial liberation which never existed before
Cold War Effects
o“Zabatsus” – corporations that ran the economy before the end of the war
oCorporations like Toyota, Honda, Mitsubishi
oUSA allowed zabatsus to maintain themselves and for governments to allow them to have low
taxes
oKeep the elites happy
oKeep Japan as an ally
oThe Dodge plan – growth on economic wealth
The Korean War (1950 - ?)
oOccupied by Japan in 1910
oKorea wanted independence but it was divided into two
oNorth occupied by Soviet – ruled by Kim Ilsung at the time
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Description
Japan after WWII  Embracing defeat o Took their failure as an opportunity for change  Japanese empire at its height (1942) o Successful dictatorship – military o Parliament with no power o Territorial control in parts of China – raw materials gained o War with China in the 1930s – tension with Americans at the time o Had economic embargo towards Japan – particularly on oil o Japan had Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia... o Wanted to go into a war with the US to stop them from intervening when it came to China o Pearl Harbour – strategically a failure  Ruins of Hiroshima (Aug, 1945) o Atomic bombs dropped o Incendiary bombs o Burned wooden bridges o Japan reduced to nothing  Under American Occupation (1945-52) o Americans occupied this nation to re-establish it o Led by General Douglas Macarthur o New government established – new industries o Built up Japan economically to be allies with the US o New relations with the Emperor, individual rights established o Constitutional power, no state power for the Emperor  New Constitution (1947) o Democracy in their system o Ban on discrimination based on race, religion, gender o Unions were established o Peace clause – never fighting in a war ever again and also stated that they will give up their army o Japan only has a small self defense force  Pop Culture effects o The American occupation brought in consumer goods o Japanese “sponged” their culture o Social liberation which never existed before  Cold War Effects o “Zabatsus” – corporations that ran the economy before the end of the war o Corporations like Toyota, Honda, Mitsubishi o USA allowed zabatsus to maintain themselves and for governments to allow them to have low taxes o Keep the elites happy o Keep Japan as an ally o The Dodge plan – growth on economic wealth  The Korean War (1950 - ?) o Occupied by Japan in 1910 o Korea wanted independence but it was divided into two o North occupied by Soviet – ruled by Kim Ilsung at the time o Southern part occupied by few US force o Stalin wanted to unite South and North and establish communism but it backfired o UN army pushed North Koreans and potentially wanted to take over China as well o After Stalin’s death, they pulled out and created a destabilization zone o Japan’s proximity to Korea allowed a flourishing economy as the army base was there of the United States who wanted to keep them as allies  Japan as USA Bastion in the Pacific o Long term agreements on bases in Japan o Military staging areas o Trade agreements  Rise of Japan, Inc o Economic boom fed by subsidies from Ministry of International Trade o Second powerful economy at the time o Good wages, high quality goods, new technology o Not spending money on maintaining an army allowed the economy to flourish  Social Instability o Left wing did not like the closeness with the US o Right wing did not like the defeat from the war and saw themselves as victims o Socialist leader Inejiro Asanauma assassinated by an ultranationalist student in 1960 o The “Salary man” o Jobs for lives – guaranteed employment in exchange for loyalty o Jobs taking toll on personal and familial costs o “herbivore” man – rejection of social order – no school or job, complete opposite of the salary man o An Era of Challenged (1990s – 2000s) o Little imagination, less children o Economic slowdown, population declining o Natural disasters – Tsunami in 2011 China under Mao (documentary) A) The Build-up to the Chinese Revolution of 1949 and the First Decade of the People’s Republic - Discrimination, poverty, dominated by other nations taking over - In debt to landowners, landless labourers, elites ruled over, low wages - Self governing country but taken over by military dictatorship - Mao Zedong – Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party (d. 1976) - Mao wanted to improve the quality of living – but was defeated - Long March – loyal followers of Mao that were peasants wanted to overthrow the elite and city people o land owner revolution took the elites off the organizations and gave power to the poor and the ability to run them - Mao wanted a communist state and offered land ownership to the peasants working in
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