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Lecture 5

NRS 204 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Bone Conduction, Toothache, Otitis Media

Course Code
NRS 204
Lisa Giallonardo

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1. :
Accommodation – adaptation of the eye for near vision. It is accomplished by increasing
the curvature of the lens through movement of the ciliary muscles.
Arcus senilis – (is a normal finding in aging persons) is commonly seen around cornea;
this is a gray-white arc or circle around the limbus (border of cornea); it is due to
deposition of lipid material.
Buccal – pertaining (belongs) to the inside of the cheek, the surface of a tooth, or the gum
beside the cheek.
Caries – dental caries – a tooth disease caused by the complex interaction of food,
especially starches and sugars, with bacteria that form dental plaque. The term also refers
to the tooth cavities that result from the disease.
Cataract – an abnormal progressive condition of the lens of the eye, characterized by loss
transparency. Most cataracts are caused by degenerative changes, often occurring after 50
years of age.
Cerumen a yellowish or brownish waxy secretion produced by vestigial apocrine sweat
glands in the external ear canal. Also called earwax.
Conjunctivitis – inflammation of the conjunctiva, caused by bacterial or viral infection,
allergy, or environmental factors.
Convergence – the movement of two objects toward a common point, such as the turning
of the eyes inward to see an object close to the face.
Diplopia – double vision caused by defective function of the extraocular muscles or a
disorder of the nerves that innervate the muscles. Also called ambiopia.
Exopthalmos (exopthtalmia) – an abnormal condition characterized by a marked
protrusion (высовывание, выступ) of the eyeballs, usually resulting from the increased
volume of the orbital contents caused by a tumor; swelling caused by edema or
Epistaxis – bleeding from the nose caused by local irritation of mucous membranes,
violent sneezing, chronic infection, hypertension, vitamin K deficiency, or most often,
picking (ковыряться в носу) the nose. Also called nose-bleeding.
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Fontanels- a space covered by tough membranes between the bones of an infant’s
cranium (anterior f. closes at 14 months; the posterior f. closes about 2 months after
Gingivitis – inflammation of the gingiva (дёсен), with symptoms that may include
redness, swelling, and bleeding.
Glaucoma – an abnormal condition of elevated pressure within an eye caused by
obstruction of the aqueous humor.
Hyperopia – farsightedness or an inability of the eye to focus on nearby objects.
Leukoplakia – a precancerous, slowly developing change in a mucous membrane
characterized by thickened, white, firmly attached patches that are slightly raised and
sharply circumscribed.
Lymphadenopathy – any disorder characterized by a localized or generalized enlargement
of the lymph nodes or lymph vessels.
Macrocephalic – an enlarged head for age, or rapidly increasing in size
e.g., hydrocephalus
Microcephalic – head circumference below norms for age.
Myopia – a condition of nearsightedness caused by the elongation of the eyeball or by an
error in refraction so that parallel rays are focused in front of the retina.
Nodule –Solid, elevated, hard or soft, larger than1cm. May extend deeper into dermis
than papule. Examples: xanthoma, fibroma, intradermal nevi.
OD – abbr for overdose. O.D. – abbreviation for oculus dexter, meaning ‘right eye’.
OS – abbreviation for oculus sinister, a Latin phrase meaning ‘left eye’.
OU – abbreviation for oculus uterque, a Latin phrase meaning ‘each eye’.
Polyp – a small tumor like growth that projects from mucous membrane surface.
Presbycusis – hearing loss associated with age. It usually involves both a loss of hearing
sensitivity and a reduction in the clarity of speech.
Presbyopia – a hyperopic shift to farsightedness resulting from a loss of elasticity of the
lens of the eye. Develops with age; first symt. about 40.
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Ptosis – an abnormal condition of one or both upper eyelids in which the eyelid droops
because of weakness of the levator muscle or paralysis of the third cranial nerve.
Strabismus an abnormal ocular condition in which the visual axes of the eyes is not
directed at the same point. Can be paralytic and nonparalytic.
Thrush – appearance of creamy whit patches of exudates on an inflamed tongue or buccal
Tinnitus – a subjective noise sensation, often described as ringing, heard in one or both
Vertigo – a sensation of instability, loss of equilibrium, or rotation, caused by a
disturbance in the semicircular canal of the inner ear or the vestibular nuclei of the
Visual acuity – the sharpness or clearness of vision.
2a. Function of eyes
3a. Appropriate health history questions for the eyes
1. Vision difficulties?
2. Acuity decreased, blurring, blind
3. Out of focus?
4. Spots, halos around lights?
5. Night vision problems?
6. PAIN = P-Q-R-S-T-U
7. Strabismus or diplopia (crossed).
8. Redness, swelling
9. Watering, discharge- Type?
10. Any history of occular problems?
11. Glaucoma?
12. Use of glasses, contacts?
13. Self care behaviours
Eyes Development considerations
● Sensory organ of vision:
● Well protected by the bones of the skull and
thin layer of fat – eyelid!!
● Lacrimal glands produce tears-lubricate.
● Cornea (outer layer) very sensitive to touch.
A blink from touch is normal and should
occur simultaneously in both eyes.
● Cranial Nerve V!!
● Pupillary light reflex is the normal
constriction. Consensual and direct
At birth eye function is limited but matures fully during
the early years.
● 3-4 months an infant can fixate on a single object.
At birth the iris shows little pigment and the pupils are
very small.
The aging adult:
● Changes in eye structure contribute to distinct facial
changes of the aging person.
● The skin looses elasticity.
● Lacrimal glands decrease tear production
● Lens looses elasticity, near vision (presbyopia). ● Inability
to see at night (no driving).
Conjunctiva- clear layer covering white
sclera underneath
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