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Lecture 20

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Anthropology 1032
Trevor Orchard

Introduction to Biological Anthropology and Archaeology Lecture Twenty: Rise of Civilizations I st November 21 , 2013 Food Production ( from last class) Southeastern Domesticates • Southeastern Domesticates o Marshelder o Chenopods o Squash o Knotweed o Little Barley o Bottle Gourds o Maize o Beans • Independent Hopewel ) 2200 – 1600 BP) • Use of many domesticated species o Introduction to maize from Mesoamerica o Florescense of trade, mortuary complex  In part of what gives rise to agricultural products coming out of Mexico • Complex features associated with burial complexes Mississippian ( 1000 – 400 BP) • Several chiefdoms along the Mississippi Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers o Some of the most complex societies in North America at that time • Villages and cities emerge o Truly monumental public architecture o Supported by Maize agriculture • Large scale population irrigation • Debated wether the petiod represents a gull blown state that society • The whole mississipian society is based on the production of maize Cahokia • The largest population aggregation in North America prior to European contact • Largest mound structure in North America Mississipian Economy • Flood plain agriculture – no irrigation o Maize and beans • Local waterfowl, fish, deer, turkeys • Wild nuts were important • Debateable if it were a functioning city • Main argument for why the city failed was that their agriculture failed Mississippian: Cyclical Food Stress • Bones show Harris lines o Cyclical nutritional stress • Agriculturally intense societies are fare more fressed and unbalanced diets • Some seasons drought or poor planning led to not enough food • Need for rigid control over resources o Leaders collect surplus and redistributein times of shortage o Moundville- construction of fish pointds • Agriculturally focused diet may not have been able to meet their needs • Variety of features of rigid control of the resources by the elite of the societies (the government) • Leaders collecting surplus food and redistributing in times of need • Control the movement of protein; hunted game The Rise of Civilizations Classifying the Nature and Scale of Societies  Traditional 4-part classifications: ◦ Elman Service (1962):  band; tribe; chiefdom; state ◦ Morton Fried (1967):  egalitarian; ranked; stratified; state  Traditionally, these were seen as stages in an evolutionary trajectory.  Service’s Model  Bands: ◦ Small related groups; informal leadership  Kin groups, a couple of extended families that are working agriculture together ◦ Little difference in individual status  status based on achievement ◦ Subsistence-level hunting & gathering economies  Tribes: ◦ At least temporary presence of pan tribal sodality ◦ Kin-based redistribution of resources and food production ◦ Leaders use authority but have no real power ( if the group denies a decision)  Leadership is also temporary  Those with the best skills for a new project will take control until the project is complete ◦ Tribes in which there is a pan-tribal sodality ◦ Come together for part of the year  Chiefdoms: ◦ Leadership is centralized and permanent  Authority and resource control but lacking true power ◦ Larger societies ◦ Chief tends to be someone in a permanent position for their life ◦ Lack true power: do not have power of life and death of their group members ◦ Much more social inequality in chiefdoms ◦ Have the power because of wealth and status ◦ Resource redistribution very important  Tribute, taxation ◦ Surplus fed into centralized leadership and redistributed  State: ◦ Presence of a bureaucracy  Now is a complex body of power, exists not as complex back then ◦ State possesses legitimate power  Now have the right to enforce, laws, rule, opinions and decisions of the central power ◦ This is most widely known terminology ◦ Earn the respect of their peers throughout their life ◦ The Development of Civilization  major event in human adaptation ◦ not simply a natural, progressive development in human culture ◦ NOT A NATURAL THING, human societies wont become states given enough time  Civilization, in an archaeological context? ◦ defined by urbanized, state-level societies.  Cities and States are building blocks of civilizations.  So Cities are a key archaeological signature!  Social complexity  Larger and larger populations in larger and larger geographical locations  Cities are one the key signatures when looking for the rise of civilizations  our concern is “Pre-industrial civilizations” ◦ relied on manual labour, rather than fossil fuels such as coal ◦ Found in many areas of the world, such as... Pre-Industrial Civilizations  Variable, but share certain common features: ◦ Cities:  large, very complex social organizations  large increase in territory over previous cultures  state-owned versus kin-owned territories ◦ Economies:  centralized (state) accumulation of capital and status  tribute and taxation  trade monopolies controlled by the state  facilitates diverse craft specialists  long-distance trade common ◦ Cultural developments / advances:  formal record keeping (e.g. Incan knotted strings)  science, mathematics  written script common (e.g. Egyptian hieroglyphics) ◦ Architectural developments:  impressive public buildings  monumental architecture ◦ State religion:  leader of the state played a major role in the religion  leader often seen as semi-god like  Archaeological research focuses on origin and development of: ◦ state-level social and political organization ◦ cities • not a simplistic concet as they are different, however tere are common features of states that they have cities • cities are large social organizations and increase in territory that is controlled in a single unified • supports craft specialization and pay them to devote their time to pottry r religion or witing • long distance trade is a key aspect , is an important aspect of socieities • astonomy is important on how the natul world fuctio • written laungage is universal, often wiritng system developed fomr government puposes and mainintg records What is a city? • Hard to define, hard to draw line • Large by any pre-civilization standard • Larger cities in the range of 10 – 40,000 people • Large in contrast to bands or tribes that probably never reached a population of 1000  large, dense settlement, with populations in the thousands ◦ small ancient cities – 2,000 to 3,000 people ◦ large (e.g. Rome) – possible more than 1,000,000 What is a City?  specialization and interdependence ◦ between city and rural hinterland ◦ between craft specialists and other groups ◦ central place within the region  provides services for the surrounding villages  relies on villages for food  most ancient cities had marketplaces for exchange  high degree of organizational complexity ◦ centralized institutions to regulate internal affairs and ensure security ◦ often expressed in monumental architecture: temples, palaces, city walls ◦ closely related, then, to states! ◦ can have a state without a city, but cannot have a city without a state What is a State?  Cities obvious archaeologically  States harder to define archaeologically  States are: ◦ “A government entity that persists by politically controlling a territory” ◦ power of kin groups is reduced – no longer the basic unit of production and sociopolitical organization ◦ a ruling elite emerges as focus of power Definition of the State  Service’s definition: ◦ Presence of
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