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ANTH 1032 (13)
Lecture 7

Lecture 7.docx

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ANTH 1032
Trevor Orchard

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October 1/ 2013 Anthro 1032: Introduction to BioglogicalAnthropolgy andArchaeology Primates: Our Closest Living Relatives (Continued) From Last Class: Some Common Primate Traits  Limbs and Locomotion  Diet and Teeth  Brain / Senses  Maturation, Learning, and Behavior  Small sets of children with more dependency on parents NO SINGLE FEATURE DISTINGUISHES PRIMATES FROM OTHER MAMMALS: THEREAREANUMBER OF FEATURES SHARED BY MOST PRIMATES So what do these shared, derived traits tell us about the evolutionary origins of primates?  advantageous in an arboreal (tree-dwelling) context.  General diet  Long period of parental investment and learning  Well developed sense of sight  Opposable thumbs and toes  = Highly Adaptable Adaptive Origins of Primates • Arboreal Hypothesis ◦ Fred Szalay (1973) – Evolution of primate traits result of shift to more herbivorous diet and more acrobatic grasp-leaping type of locomotion.  primate adaptations a result of a shift towards life in the trees.  Problem: what about other arboreal mammals (i.e. squirrels) • Visual Predation Hypothesis ◦ Cartmill emphasizes visual adaptations. Stereoscopic vision important for predators that rely on vision to detect prey. ◦ Nailed, grasping hands for grasping prey rather than arboreal supports. ◦ Ancestral primate was visual predator that stalked and grasped prey (typically insects) in canopy or forest undergrowth • Angiosperm Radiation Hypothesis ◦ Sussman (1991) – primates evolved in conjunction with radiation of flowering plants to exploit fruit, flowers, and nectar. ◦ visual predation rare behavior in primates and not important in earliest primates. Primate Taxonomy • Order: Primates o Suborder: Strepsirhini (lemurs, lorises, galagos) o Suborder: Haplorhini (Tarsiers, Monkeys,Apes, Humans Strepsirhini • Characterized by retention of primitive* features ◦ *i.e. characteristics present in multiple species General Strepsirhini Traits • relatively long noses with moist snouts (rhinarium) • Pronounced dependence on hearing and smell • Most are nocturnal • tooth comb on lower jaw • Grooming claw on 2 toe of foot • tend to have multiple births; females have multiple pairs of breasts • 2:1:3:3 dental formula Lemurs • only on Madagascar and Comoro Islands • Range in size from mouse lemur (world’s smallest primate – 30 gr.) to Indri • Quadrupedal and vertical clinging and leaping locomotion • Lorises • Africa andAsia. • Nocturnal and arboreal o Large eyes take in more light in the dark • Slow hand over foot locomotion Galagos or bush babies • Africa • Nocturnal and arboreal • Galagos scamper & leap through trees at night searching out insects to catch & eat. • Females stay together, males disperse Primate Taxonomy • Order: Primates o Suborder: Haplorhini (Tarsiers, Monkeys,Apes, Humans)  Infraorder: Tarsiiformes (Tarsiers)  Infraorder:Anthropoidea (Monkeys,Apes, Humans) Tarsiers • Small primates (100-125 g) • only Philippines & Indonesia • Huge eyes;Able to turn their heads 180° • Skilled at vertical clinging and leaping • The only entirely carnivorous (mostly insects) primate ◦ Anthropoids • Increased emphasis on vision (relative to smell) • Eyes are better adapted for diurnal (daytime) vision & color vision o Colour vision is unnecessary for nocturnal primates and not present in more primitive primates • Eye socket is enclosed in a post-orbital bar • Reduced snout New World Monkeys (Platyrrhines) • South and CentralAmerica • Nostrils are round and separated by a wide nasal septum • Mainly arboreal • Prehensile tails • • 2:1:3:3 dental formula Groups of New World Monkeys (NWM) • Small-bodied marmosets & tamarins • Larger-bodied cebids • Larger-bodied atelidae NWM: Tamarins and Marmosets • Body size 120 – 500 g • Eat fruit, insects, gum • claws, no finger nails • Males very involved in infant care • Live in mated pairs or polyandry NWM: Cebids • Body size 800 – 3600 g • Eat insects, fruit, & small animal prey • Some have prehensile tails • Small groups with one mated pair or large groups (up to 50 individuals) • 2:1:3:2 dental pattern  some species have lost one of the molers NWM:Atelids • Some weigh up to 11.4 kg • Four genera of atelids have prehensile tails • Diet of fruit and leaves. Old
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