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Lecture

Making of the Modern World February 3.docx

5 Pages
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Department
History
Course Code
HIST 1100
Professor
Valerie Hebert

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Description
Making of the Modern World February 3, 2014 The New Imperialism Key Terms • The “ new imperialism” • The Scrable for Africa 1884 • The “ White Man’s Burden” – Rudyard Kipling • Social Imperialism • Boer War 1899­1902 • Fashoda Crisis 1898 European Boundaries Redrawn • 1815 and 1900 • newly created states trying to gain prestige on the world stage • old states trying to maintain their prestige • nationalism intensifying, lead to ride in hatred of enemies • Atmosphere thick with ambition and fear • Could and would lead to war The New Imperialism • Nations of Europe vying to increase in power and status to win colonies and  expand territories • 1880s and 1890s Britain France German Italy Spain Portugal and Belguim all  raced to control places outside of Europe • According the new imperialism ideology that the balance of power in Europe had  ot be extended to the world  • Rivalries and protections needed to be extended to the whole world • People began to think of their nations as world powers • Non­western world seen as pot of un­claimed treasure Industrial revolution impact • More efficient means of travel were needed • More money was needed • New ways of moving across oceans quicker allowed the exploration of rivers of  Africa • Until 1850 Europeans had traveled no farther than coastal areas • Europeans took note of natural terrain and resources • Britain had vast telegraph network • Vast Caricature of Cecil Rhodes with his proposed telegraph cable from Cairo to  Cape Town • Technological development that aided in civilization: new forms of weaponry • 1875 – 1914 Scramble for Africa • by 1914 90% of the African continent had be seized by European states • Ethiopia and Liberia  • Liberia had been created for emancipated slaved • Consistency makes top 5 list of worst places to live King Leopold and the Congolese • Historians agree that the person who began the scramble for Africa was King  Leopold of Belgium • Early 1876 Leopold 2 went to the Congo to secure slaves • Operated under the context that he was going to go to the Congo to end the slave  trade of Africa by the Arabs and open the country up to Christianity • 1876 he organized a company called The International African Association • IAA stripped country of Ivory, harvested Rubber from Rubber Trees • Leopold turned the Congo basin into a vast labour force • Enforced high demands of work on the Congolese • Workers were killed if they did not work hard enough • Held women and children for ransom to make men work • Congolese men did the killing, ordered to bring back severed hands as proof of  the murder • Wanted to make sure the guns were used for killing not hunting • Cut off the hands of the living to prove that the rubber demand was too high • The hands became a currency, used to prove loyalty and gain a shorter sentence • 10 million people died due to the Colonial practices in the Congo • The Democratic Republic of the Congo, one of the most violent countries in the  world • Until photographic evidence, Leopold had denied the goings on in The Congo • Leopold applied for recognition of his rule of the Congo under the name of a  company • France and Portugal objected because they wanted in too • International disagreement about who can do what in Africa Berlin Conference • Leopold was given possession of the Congo Free State • Established the ground rules for the recognition for colonial claims in Africa • Protocol was that colonizing countries would need to create a real presence with  proof of a steady economy • Berlin Conference organized and gave an order to it • Countries would meet and trade territories with each other • In the beginning might have seemed peaceful, but there was always a readiness to  kill Africans • 1884 Hibram Maxim invented machine gun that could sho
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