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Lecture

Making of the Modern World February 3.docx

5 pages69 viewsFall 2014

Department
History
Course Code
HIST 1100
Professor
Valerie Hebert

Page:
of 5
Making of the Modern World
February 3, 2014
The New Imperialism
Key Terms
The “ new imperialism”
The Scrable for Africa 1884
The “ White Man’s Burden” – Rudyard Kipling
Social Imperialism
Boer War 1899-1902
Fashoda Crisis 1898
European Boundaries Redrawn
1815 and 1900
newly created states trying to gain prestige on the world stage
old states trying to maintain their prestige
nationalism intensifying, lead to ride in hatred of enemies
Atmosphere thick with ambition and fear
Could and would lead to war
The New Imperialism
Nations of Europe vying to increase in power and status to win colonies and
expand territories
1880s and 1890s Britain France German Italy Spain Portugal and Belguim all
raced to control places outside of Europe
According the new imperialism ideology that the balance of power in Europe had
ot be extended to the world
Rivalries and protections needed to be extended to the whole world
People began to think of their nations as world powers
Non-western world seen as pot of un-claimed treasure
Industrial revolution impact
More efficient means of travel were needed
More money was needed
New ways of moving across oceans quicker allowed the exploration of rivers of
Africa
Until 1850 Europeans had traveled no farther than coastal areas
Europeans took note of natural terrain and resources
Britain had vast telegraph network
Vast Caricature of Cecil Rhodes with his proposed telegraph cable from Cairo to
Cape Town
Technological development that aided in civilization: new forms of weaponry
1875 – 1914 Scramble for Africa
by 1914 90% of the African continent had be seized by European states
Ethiopia and Liberia
Liberia had been created for emancipated slaved
Consistency makes top 5 list of worst places to live
King Leopold and the Congolese
Historians agree that the person who began the scramble for Africa was King
Leopold of Belgium
Early 1876 Leopold 2 went to the Congo to secure slaves
Operated under the context that he was going to go to the Congo to end the slave
trade of Africa by the Arabs and open the country up to Christianity
1876 he organized a company called The International African Association
IAA stripped country of Ivory, harvested Rubber from Rubber Trees
Leopold turned the Congo basin into a vast labour force
Enforced high demands of work on the Congolese
Workers were killed if they did not work hard enough
Held women and children for ransom to make men work
Congolese men did the killing, ordered to bring back severed hands as proof of
the murder
Wanted to make sure the guns were used for killing not hunting
Cut off the hands of the living to prove that the rubber demand was too high
The hands became a currency, used to prove loyalty and gain a shorter sentence
10 million people died due to the Colonial practices in the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo, one of the most violent countries in the
world
Until photographic evidence, Leopold had denied the goings on in The Congo
Leopold applied for recognition of his rule of the Congo under the name of a
company
France and Portugal objected because they wanted in too
International disagreement about who can do what in Africa
Berlin Conference
Leopold was given possession of the Congo Free State
Established the ground rules for the recognition for colonial claims in Africa
Protocol was that colonizing countries would need to create a real presence with
proof of a steady economy
Berlin Conference organized and gave an order to it
Countries would meet and trade territories with each other
In the beginning might have seemed peaceful, but there was always a readiness to
kill Africans
1884 Hibram Maxim invented machine gun that could shoot 11 bullets per second
1890 Brussels convention banned the sale of modern weapons to Africans
The military advantage passed overwhelmingly to Europeans
The conquest of Africa was more like hunting than Africa
90 Europeans using 6 machine guns killed 3000 indigenous people
32 Europeans defeated 31,000 army
After 5 hours of fighting 20 dead British, 20 dead Egyptian, 11,000 dead
Sudanese
Late 19th and early 20th centuries the peoples in these places were exposed more
than ever to European colonizers, technology, administrators and brutality
New methods of agriculture and transportation were brought to the countries
South Africa, Dutch farmers along with the British took the land to harvest
diamonds
African shrines and culture were destroyed
Entire indigenous cultures were decimated
Cost of Imperialism
Capitalism requires the continuation of work
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin “ Imperialism the highest stage of Capitalism”
Financiers were finding it difficult to find safe investments
In the new colonies labour was cheap
Wanted to show that capitalism was crumbling
European Missionaries to Africa
Many Europeans saw the natives in need of spiritual enlightenment
Thought people in Africa and Asia were backward
Altruistic motivation
Combination of serving the natives and being served by the natives
Social Darwinism
Bastardized version of Darwins idea of evolution
People applied these views to humans
Largely a western European ideology
Anglo-Saxons said to be the best people
Because Europeans dominated other peoples so easily contributed to the idea that
they were the top race
Cecil Rhodes
Was in Zimbabwe
British
Lived in South Africa
Made his fortune in diamond and gold mines
Believed very strongly in the domination of other races by Anglo-Saxons

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