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Lecture 2

Psychology Lecture 2 Sept 18, 2013.docx

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PSYCH 1100
Mike Moland

PSYC-1100-YB RB-1042 Dr. M. Moland Psychology September 18, 2013 7:00 PM Opportunity to gain bonus marks - 6 full marks (ex: 64% plus 6 bonus marks = 70%) Psychology Defined The scientific study of human behaviour and mental processes What is Science?  A method, approach to evidence, observation and testing, systematic way of gathering knowledge about the natural world Set of attitudes and skills designed to prevent us from fooling ourselves   It is a brutal competition of evidence, not a brutal competition of opinion  Matter of finding out which explanations best fit the data about how our minds work Hindsight Bias The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. The "I knew it all along" effect Testing Claims & Critical Thinking  Good theory - organizes facts, predicts events - requires testable hypotheses that can be falsified  Hypotheses guide scientific research by allowing tests, rejections and revisions of the theory Ad hoc Immunizing Hypothesis - an excuse defenders of a theory use to protect it from falsification  Critical thinking involves examining assumptions, evaluating evidence, assesses conclusions  Naïve Realism - belief that we see the world as it is  Belief Perseverance - tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them Illusory Correlation: The perception of a relationship where none exists Apophenia: Perceiving meaningful connections among unrelated and even random phenomena (Carroll, 2003) "The phone always rings when you're in the shower" Confirmation Bias (definition lecture 1)  Business managers tend to follow successfulness of those they hire over those they rejected leading them to confirm their own perceived hiring ability Six Principles of Critical Thinking  Extraordinary claims - require extraordinary evidence (psychics)  Falsifiability - for a claim to be meaningful, it must be able to be disproved  Occam's Razor - if two explanations account equally well for an observation, we should generally select the simpler one  Replicability - findings must be duplicated (independent verification)  Ruling out rival hypotheses - need to consider alternative hypotheses  Correlation is not causation Page 1 PSYC-1100-
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