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Lecture 6

Psychology Lecture 6 Oct 16, 2013.docx

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PSYCH 1100
Mike Moland

PSYC-1100-YB RB-1042 Dr. M. Moland Psychology October 16, 2013 7:00 PM Visual illusions can be remarkably informative about what is happening in the brain Text-book**** Sensation: how the senses detect visual, auditory, and other sensory stimuli and encode them as neural signals - detecting component Perception: how sensory information is selected, organized and interpreted - perceiving component Bottom-up processing: begins with the sensory receptors, we construct a whole stimulus from its parts - see depth and colour but cannot determine what's going on in the picture, cannot put it all together Top-down processing: information processing that we use to construct perceptions based on our experience and expectations - ex: blind spot? Fill the gaps - relies on experience and expectation, when words are jumbled or written in a messy way you can figure out what they are trying to say by what you are expecting to read, identifying immediately Absolute Threshold: the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time - subliminal perception, below the minimum needed to identify something - does our perception of time slow down during an accident? Things go slower than the absolute threshold Eagleman - tested this theory to see if our perception really does slow down (adrenaline), greater clarity leading to a better response (like in a car accident, you can think of the best way to survive), reports that it feels like time is slowing down but the brain doesn't show the stimuli that is presented Perceptual organization also plays a powerful role in deciding whether a form will be recognized as familiar or not If primed in one instance to expect to see vases (top-down processing) then primed at a later time to expect to see two profiles, subjects will not often realize that they've seen this figure previously Sensory Adaptation Sensory Adaptation: our diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus (wearing a watch - you only feel it for the first 5 minutes then you forget about it) If we stare at an object without flinching, does it vanish? No. our eyes are constantly moving (saccadic movements) What if we actually could stop our eyes from moving? Imagine having a mini projector mounted on a contact lens - when your eye moves, the image from the projector moves as well Subliminal Stimulation Subliminal: below absolute threshold for conscious awareness Misheard song lyrics video - hilarious Context Our language contains some redundancies; one does not need every letter to identify what a word is: often the missing letter is perfectly predictable from the context, virtually guaranteeing that Perception depends on context - we see things to compensate for lighting, shadows, etc. Binding It All Together 1. Our brains engage in parallel processing - doing several things at once PSYC-1100-YB RB-1042 Dr. M. Moland 2. We construct our perceptions by integrating the work of different visual teams, working in parallel (when we see the world, the brain divides a visual scene into sub-dimensions such as color, depth, movement, form), works on each aspect simultaneously 3. Our brain combines
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