Class Notes (839,147)
Canada (511,218)
Psychology (81)
PSYCH 1100 (65)


4 Pages

Course Code
PSYCH 1100
Thomas Kondzielewski

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Pysch M ATURATION • physical growth and development of the body, brain, and nervous system • increased muscular control occurs in patterns; order of maturation is almost universal • Cephalocaudal: from head to toe • Proximodistal: from center of the body to the extremities EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Basic emotions: anger, fear, joy; appear to be unlearned but still takes time to develop • first general excitement, then a split between pleasant & unpleasant • Social Smile: smiling elicited by social stimuli; like seeing a parent's face • parents can expect to see a full range of basic emotions by the end of a baby's first year SOCIAL D EVELOPMENT • development of self-awareness (18 months), attachment to parent/caregivers and relationships with other children/adults SELF -RECOGNITION The study: the elephant self-recognition study Conducted by: New York's wildlife conservation society • Happy, the elephant, was marked with a white X painted above her eye and a similar mark was made on the opposite side of her head in invisible paint of an identical smell and texture • when Happy saw her image in the mirror she repeatedly brought her own head to touch the white mark. This is the ultimate test of self-recognition. • the elephants also made repetitive movements in front of the mirror and apparently used it to inspect their body parts, Maxine even put her trunk tip into her mouth and looked as though she was trying to study her mouth's interior. C ONTACT COMFORT (H ARLOW ) • pleasant and reassuring feeling babies get from touching something warm and soft, especially their mother A TTACHMENT • Emotional attachment: close emotional bond that infants form with parents, caregivers, or others • Separation anxiety: crying and signs of fear when a child is left alone or is with a stranger; generally appears around 8-12 months • Separation anxiety disorder: severe and prolonged distress displayed by children when separated from parents/caregivers • children usually grow out of this Q UALITY OF INFANT ATTACHMENT (AINSWORTH ) • Secure: stable and positive emotional bond • Insecure-avoidant: anxious emotional bond; tendency to avoid reunion with parent or caregiver • Insecure-ambivalent: anxious emotional bond; desire to be with parent or caregiver and some resistance to being reunited with mother A FFECTION NEEDS • emotional needs for love and affection PARENTING STYLES (BAUMRIND , 2005) • Authoritarian parents o enforce r
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