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PSYCH 1100
Thomas Kondzielewski

Chapter 5/6 Psych C OCAINE • fatigue, anxiety, paranoia, boredom • Noradrenalin: increase arousal • Dopamine: "rush" of pleasure • Central nervous system stimulant derived from leaves of coca plant o From 1886-1906, Coca-Cola did indeed have cocaine in it! o Alertness, euphoria, well-being, power, energy o Highly addictive drug (rats will overdose) o Anhedoni (inability to feel pleasure): Common after cocaine withdrawal [and headaches] • Metabolized much faster than amphetamines R EDB ULL • banned Red Bull after lab tests turned up trace amounts of coca leaf extracts  narcotic • The illegal cocaine alkaloid–one of 10 found in coca and representing only 0.8% is chemically removed 3,4 METHYLENE DIOXYMETHAMPHETAMINE (MDMA) • Chemically similar to amphetamine; created by • small variations in the drug’s structure o May cause severe liver damage and fatal heat exhaustion o Repeated use damages serotonergic brain cells • Neglect studying, party excessively • anxiety and depression persisting for months C AFFEINE • Most frequently used psychoactive drug in North America; present in colas, chocolate, coffee, tea • Causes tremors, sweating, talkativeness, tinnitus; suppresses fatigue or sleepiness, increases alertness C AFFEINISM • Physiological dependence on caffeine • Symptoms: Insomnia, irritability, loss of appetite, chills, racing heart, elevated body temperature • May be hazardous to pregnant women if used excessively; may cause birth defects N ICOTINE Chapter 5/6 • Natural stimulant found mainly in tobacco • In large doses may cause stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea, confusion, tremors • Addictive • Smoking is one cause of lung cancer • Summary: Don’t smoke; smoking kills (so does chewing tobacco) B ARBITURATES • Sedative drugs that depress brain activity o Medical: sedative o Recreational: anxiety reduction, euphoria o Excess: confusion & hallucinations forgetfulness; loss of consciousness • Common street names: o Barbiturate names: tuinal, seconal, nembutal, barbs, downers, blues, reds, sekkies, sleeping pills, sleepers, amytal, seonal, goof balls, christmas trees. TRANQUILIZERS • Lower anxiety and reduce tension o Valium, Xanax, Halcion, and Librium are four types o Drowsiness, shakiness, confusion o Rohypnol: Related to Valium; lowers inhibitions and produces relaxation or intoxication. Larger doses can induce short-term amnesia and sleep  Date rape drug, because it’s odorless and tasteless (“roofies”) • Tranquilizer names: valium, librium, ativan, tranx, downers, benzos, eggs, jellies, temazepam, mogadon. Barbiturates • Risks of barbiturates: o dependency o withdrawal from high doses can result in death o withdrawal are irritability, nervousness, delirium, sleeplessness, fainting, sickness, twitching, fits o dangerous when mixed with alcohol • Risks of tranquillizers (anti-anxiety): o alertness is reduced o release aggression o can cause convulsions o tolerance can develop quickly o withdrawal lead to anxiety nausea and confusion GHB (G AMMA -HYDROXYBUTYRATE ) • Central nervous system (CNS) depressant that relaxes and sedates; • Combination of degreasing solvent and drain cleaner. o Sedative effects may result in: Chapter 5/6  Nausea  loss of muscle control  sleep or a loss of consciousness o Inhibits gag reflex, so ... o Fatal dose only 3x larger than typical dose • Sold by Jazz Pharmaceuticals under the name Xyrem to treat cataplexy (loss of muscle tone) and excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy • GHB has been used in a medical setting as a general anesthetic, to treat conditions such as: o insomnia, o clinical depression, o narcolepsy, o alcoholism, o improve athletic performance • It is also used as an intoxicant (illegally in many jurisdictions) or as a date rape drug. DRUG INTERACTIONS • combined effects of two drugs that exceeds addiction of one's drug's effects to the other ALCOHOL • Ethyl alcohol: Intoxicating element in fermented and distilled liquors o NOT a stimulant but does lower inhibitions o Depressant • Alcohol myopia: Shortsighted thinking and perception that occurs during alcohol intoxication BINGE D RINKING • Consuming five or more drinks in a short time, or four or more for women o Serious sign of alcohol abuse o May lead up to 10 percent loss of brain power, especially memory TREATMENT FOR A LCOHOL A BUSE AND D EPENDENCE Chapter 5/6 • Detoxification: Withdrawal of the person from alcohol; occurs in a medical setting and is tightly controlled; often necessary before long-term treatment begins A LCOHOLICS A NONYMOUS (AA) • Alcoholics Anonymous (AA): Worldwide self-help organization composed of recovering alcoholics; emphasizes admitting powerlessness over alcohol usage and wanting to recover • Spiritual component • Free; around for over 70 years A NAA A LTERNATIVE • Rational Recovery, and Secular Organizations for sobriety (SOS): Non-spiritual AA Alternative O PIATES • The major biologically active opiates found in opium are morphine, codeine, the baine, and papaverine. • Synthetic opioids such as heroin, oxycodone, and hydrocodone are derived from these substances, especially morphine, codeine, and thebaine. SOME HALLUCINOGENS • A substance that alters or distorts sensory impressions • Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD): Hallucinogen that can produce hallucinations and other psychotic-like symptoms • Mescaline (peyote) and psilocybin (magic mushrooms) are two other types of hallucinogens PCP (A NGEL DUST) • Initially can have hallucinogenic effects; also an anesthetic and has stimulant and depressant effects M ARIJUANA (POT ) • Cannabis sativa (marijuana; pot): Leaves and flowers of the hemp plant o Active Chemical: • THC [tetrahydrocannabinol] o Effects: Relaxation, time distortion, perceptual distortions o Psychologically and physiologically addictive  THC-like drug. Yellowish areas show where the brain is rich in THC  abundance in cortex and areas involved in the control of coordinated movement  help the brain cope with pain and stress  high doses can cause paranoia, hallucinations, dizziness & munchies Chapter 5/6 SOME HEALTH RISKS OF USING MARIJUANA • May increase risk of prostate and cervical cancer o 50% hydrocarbons (carcinogen) & 16X more tar • May suppress immune system, perhaps increasing risk of disease o May cause a higher rate of miscarriages o Activity levels in the cerebellum are lower than normal in pot users • Pot may damage some of the brain’s memory centers [memory problems occur] • [At 29: healthier, earn more, and more satisfied if not a user.]  Ross Rebagliati  first-ever gold medal in snowboarding (1998) DREAM NTERPRETATION • Freud: four dream processes (mental filters) that hide true purpose of dreams CONDENSATION • Combining several people, objects, or events into a single dream image o E.g. authority figures DISPLACEMENT • Directing emotions or actions toward safe or unimportant dream images o E.g. wrecking the car instead of attacking parent SYMBOLIZATION • Nonliteral expression of dream content o E.g., naked in class = vulnerable SECONDARY ELABORATION • Making a dream more logical and complete while remembering it o I.e., not really remembering it accurately (because it was too weird for that). LUCID DREAMING • Person feels fully awake within the dream and feels capable of normal thought and action Chapter 5/6 Psych ~ chapter 6 K EY TERMS • Learning: relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience • does not include temporary changes due to disease, fatigue, injury, maturation, or drugs, since these do not qualify as learning, even though they can alter behavior. M OTIVATION • Reinforcement: any event that increases the probability that a response will recur • Response: any identifiable behavior o internal: faster heartbeat o observable: eating, scratching LEARNING : M ORE KEY TERMS • Antecedents: events that precede a response • Consequences: events that follow a response C LASSICAL CONDITIONING AND VAN P AVLOV • Russian physiologist who studied Digestion • used dogs to study salivation when dogs were presented with meat powder • also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning • Reflex: automatic, non-learned response • Classical conditioning, does not produce response is paired with a stimulus that does elicit a response • horn precedes a puff of air to the eye • the horn alone will produce an eye blink • stimulus that previously had no effect begins to produces a response • operant conditioning, a response that is followed by a reinforcing consequence • a dog learns to sit up when it hears a whistle PAVLOVIAN TERMS • Neutral stimulus: Stimulus that does not evoke a response o E.g. the sound of a bell • bell does not naturally cause eye blinking • Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): A stimulus innately capable of eliciting a response o E.g. meat powder (causes salivation) Chapter 5/6 • Conditioned stimulus (CS): Stimulus that evokes a response only because it has been repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus o E.g., after some time, bell may cause blinking • Unconditioned response (UCR): An innate reflex response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) o E.g. Eye blinking(as caused by puffs of air) • Conditioned response (CR): A learned response elicited by a conditioned stimulus: o E.g. Salivation (when following bell (CS) ringing)  Fig. 7-3, p. 221 • The bell starts out as a neutral stimulus. In time, the bell becomes a conditioned stimulus(where learning has caused an association). After this learning, salivation has become a Conditioned response (in reaction to bell ringing). C OPING WITH CHEMO • Chemotherapy= unconditioned stimulus – • Leading to nausea= unconditioned response. • "biologically prepared” to make such associations PRINCIPLES OF C LASSICAL CONDITIONING • Acquisition: Training period in conditioning when a response is strengthened – causing respondent reinforcement o Johnny:  Bell CS  Lemon juice UR  Salivating CR • Higher-order conditioning: A conditioned stimulus (CS) is used to reinforce further learning; the CS is used as though it were a UCS • I.e. you can attach another CS to a previously-learned CS. o E.g. clap hands (CS), o then ring bell (CS), Chapter 5/6 o and Johnny still salivates (CR) • Expectancy: Expectation about how events are interconnected. • This involves an Informational view: We are always looking to associate different pieces of information. o [metaphor] o Return to the Hebbian Neural Doctrine • Stimulus generalization: A tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar, but not identical, to a conditioned stimulus o (e.g., responding to a buzzer when the conditioning stimulus was a bell). • Useful from an evolutionary perspective • Stimulus discrimination: The learned ability to respond differently to similar stimuli o (e.g., Anya will respond differently to various bells: alarms, school, timer) EXTINCTION • Weakening of a conditioned response through removal of reinforcement o Bell yes o Lemon juice no SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY • Reappearance of a learned response following apparent extinction perhaps the next day you start again afresh C LASSICAL CONDITIONING IN HUMANS • Conditioned emotional response(CER): Learned emotional reaction to a previously neutral stimulus o E.g. blood pressure raising because it is accustomed:  Traffic jams  Fights  If asked to speak in class  Advertisers: want us to associate their product with pleasant things Chapter 5/6  a Conditioned Emotional Response becoming a phobia • Phobia: Fear that persists even when no realistic danger exists: o Arachnophobia (fear of spiders) o Water o Heights o Thunder o Fire o Elevators • are these examples always form conditioning • do people trace their fears to the first instant FIXING PHOBIAS • Desensitization: Decreasing fear or anxiety by exposing phobic people gradually to feared stimuli while they stay calm and relaxed • Vicarious [second-hand] classical conditioning: Learning to respond emotionally to a stimulus by observing another’s emotional reactions O PERANT C ONDITIONING (Instrumental Learning) • Learning is based on the consequences of responding: o we associate our responses with their consequences • Law of effect(Thorndike): The probability of a response is altered by the effect it has: o responses that lead to desired effects are repeated o responses that lead to undesired effects are not • Operant Reinforcer: Learning is strengthened each time a response is followed by a satisfying state of affairs. • “Active” through interaction with the environment. o E.g. pushing buttons: Chapter 5/6  On televisions  On walk signs • In contrast, Classical conditioning is “passive”. o When an US follows a CS • Positive Reinforcement: o Note that rewards do not always increase a desired responding (and therefore won’t be reinforcers) M ORE O PERANT C ONDITIONING TERMS • Conditioning chamber (Skinner box): Apparatus designed to study operant conditioning in animals • Response-contingent reinforcement: Reinforcement given after a desired response occurs • Reinforcement only alters how frequently the bar is pressed INFORMATION & CONTINGENCY • We learn to expect that a certain response will have a certain effect at certain times. • Reinforcers should only be given following the desired response o (i.e. should be response contingent).  An example: of teaching a small boy to say please. o isn’t extinction expected to set in very quickly as soon as the enforcers are ever stopped. o most people manage desired behaviors without such reinforces TIMING OF REINFORCEMENT • Operant reinforcement most effective when given immediately after a correct response. • Response chain: A linked series of actions that leads to reinforcement. o E.g.:  Preparing a complicated meal.  Making a violin.  A dog running through a
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