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Lakehead University
PSYCH 1100
Thomas Kondzielewski

Chapter 4/5 Pysch ILLUSIONS: S W HATY OU SEE W HAT YOU G ET? • Stroboscopic movement: Illusory motion perceived when objects are shown in rapidly changing positions SIZE-DISTANCE INVARIANCE • Strict relationship between the distance an object lies from the eyes and the size of its image EXTRASENSORY PERCEPTION (ESP) • Purported ability to perceive events in ways that cannot be explained by known capacities of sensory organs • Parapsychology: Study of ESP and other psi phenomena (events that seem to defy accepted scientific laws) PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL “A BILITIE” • Clairvoyance: Purported ability to perceive events at a distance or through physical barriers • Telepathy: Purported ability to read minds • Precognition: Purported ability to accurately predict the future • Psychokinesis(mind over matter): Purported ability to influence inanimate objects by willpower • Zener cards: Deck of 25 cards, each having one of five symbols • Run of luck: Statistically unusual outcome that could occur by chance alone (e.g., getting five heads in a row, two jackpots within six pulls of a slot machine) STAGE ESP • Simulation of ESP for entertainment purposes • Conclusion: Existence of ESP has NOT been scientifically demonstrated; positive results are usually inconclusive and easily criticized Chapter 5 states of consciousness SOME EARLY D EFINITIONS • Consciousness: All the sensations, perceptions, memories, and feelings you are aware of at any instant – Waking consciousness:  Normal, clear alert awareness • Altered state of consciousness(ASC): Changes that occur in quality and pattern of mental activity; different from waking consciousness SLEEP • Innate, biological rhythm • Sleep deprivation: Sleep loss; being deprived of needed amounts of sleep Chapter 4/5 • Hypersomnia: Excessive daytime sleepiness – Trouble paying attention, staying alert, doing simple or boring routines. • Microsleep: Brief shift in brain activity to pattern normally recorded during sleep • Sleep-deprivation psychosis: Confusion, disorientation, delusions, and hallucinations that occur because of sleep loss [11-day record] • Sleep patterns: Daily rhythms of sleep and waking • consciousness and (mystical) culture M EASURING S LEEP CHANGES • Electroencephalograph (EEG):Brain-wave machine; amplifies and records electrical activity in the brain • Beta waves: Small, fast waves associated with alertness and wakefulness • Alpha waves: Large, slow waves associated with relaxation and falling asleep • Methods of studying consciousness o Wakefulness o beta waves o Alpha waves o trance • Stage 1 o theta waves (4-8 hz) o Small, irregular waves produced in light sleep (people may or may not say they were asleep)  Hypnicjerk: • Stage 2 o adding sleep spindle(moments of 8-14 hz) o Deeper sleep; sleep spindles appear (short bursts of distinctive brain-wave activity) • Stage 3 o delta waves  (< 4 hz) o Deeper sleep; delta waves appear; very large and slow • Stage 4 o slower delta waves  (< 2 hz) o Deepest level of normal sleep; almost purely delta waves SLEEP RHYTHMS o a sleep rhythm of about 25 hours. • darkness was imposed, rhythm quickly resynchronized N IGHTO WLS • Night Owls would naturally tend to stretch days out. • Why do some people find it so hard to both: o Wake up in the morning o Go to sleep at night • Common ground: o Problem with changing from one state to the other. Chapter 4/5 o Suspicion of enhanced mood only after a full day of wakefulness R APIDE YE MOVEMENT (REM) S LEEP • Because eye motor control is above the brain-stem locations responsible for blocking other muscle activity during sleep paralysis. • Associated with dreaming; sleep is very light • Return to Stage 1 sleep EEG patterns • Body is very still during REM sleep N ON-REM (NREM) S LEEP • Occurs during stages 1, 2, 3, and 4; no rapid eye movement occurs • 90 percent of non-REM sleep is dream-free • Seems to help us recover from daily fatigue • (a) Average proportion of time adults spend daily in REM sleep and NREM sleep. REM periods add up to about 20 percent of total sleep time. • (b) Typical changes in stages of sleep during the night. Notice that dreams mostly coincide with REM
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