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Lakehead University
PSYCH 1100
Thomas Kondzielewski

Chapter 2 Psych ~ Brain and behavior Neuron's Parts Neuron: Individual nerve cell; 100 billion in brain Soma: cell body; body of the neuron. Receives messages and sends messages down Axon Axon: Fiber that carries information away from the cell body of a neuron Dendrites: Receives messages from other neurons Axon Terminals: Branches that link the dendrites and somas of other neutrons Nerve impulses usually travel from the dendrites and soma to the branching ends of the axon Motoneuron: The axons of motor neurons stretch from the brain and spinal cord to muscles or glands of the body Resting Potential: Electrical charge of an inactive neuron Threshold: Trigger points for a neuron's during Active Potential: Nerve impulses More negative inside the cell  Sodium: [Na+] rushes into the axon  Potassium [K+] rushes out of the axon • Electrical probes placed inside and outside an axon measure its activity Chapter 2 • The inside of an axon at rest is -60 to -70 millivolts, compared with the outside [~1/1000 the strength of a 9-volt battery] • Electrochemical changes in a neuron generate an action potential. • When sodium ions [Na+] that have a positive charge rush into the cell, its interior briefly becomes positive. this is the action potential. • After the action potential, positive potassium ions [K+] flow out of the axon and restore its negative charge. Ion Channels: tiny openings through the axon membrane Negative after-Potential: a drop in electrical charge below the resting potential Synapse: microscopic space between two neurons over which messages pass Salutatory Conduction Myelin: a fatty layer coating some axons [Not complete until ~ 12 years of age] • process by which nerve impulses conducted down the axons of neutrons coated with myelin jump from gap to gap in the myelin layer Caudate Nucleus • Learning and memory • historically, the basal ganglia as a whole have been implicated in higher-order motor control • Emotion • the caudate nucleus has been implicated in responses to visual beauty, and has been suggested as one of the "neural correlates of romantic love" • language comprehension • the left-hemisphere caudate in particular has been suggested to have a relationship with the thalamus that governs the comprehension and articulation of words as they are switched between languages 1) In its resting state, the axon has a negatively charged interior 2)During an action potential, positively charged atoms (ions) rush into the axon. This briefly changes the electrical charge inside the axon from negative to positive. Simultaneously, the Chapter 2 charge outside the axon becomes negative 3)The action potential advances as positive and negative charges in reverse i
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