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PSYCH 1100
Thomas Kondzielewski

Chapter 8: Memory Thursday, Nov 28, 2013▯ ▯ Psychology▯ ▯ Cognitive Interview▯ • Police: Use various cues and strategies to improve eyewitness memory▯ • However, this is not reliable if there is no independent way to verify it. (even if it “adds 35% more correct memories”▯ • Because eyewitness testimony can be easily led, manipulated, and uncertain▯ • Hypnosis is even worse for this. ▯ • Eyewitness memories are notoriously inaccurate. ▯ • By the time witnesses are asked to testify in court, information they learned after an incident may blend into their original memories. ▯ ▯ Types of Long Term Memories▯ • Procedural (skilled): Long term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills (e.g, driving )▯ • Declarative (fact): Part of LTM that contains factual information. ▯ ▯ Subparts of Declarative Memory▯ • Semantic memory: Includes impersonal facts and everyday knowledge▯ • Episodic: Includes personal experiences lined with specific times and places▯ • E.g, typical amnesia people have often selectively lost their episodic memories. ▯ • A hypothetical network of facts about animals shows what is meant by the structure of memory. ▯ • Small networks of ideas such as this are probably organized into larger units and higher levels of meaning. ▯ ▯ Redintegration▯ • Memories that are reconstructed or expanded by starting with one memory and then following chains of association to related memories. ▯ • Remembrance of things past. ▯ ▯ Elaborative Encoding▯ • Daniel Tammet has good memory for language and numbers. ▯ • Using synaesthesia. ▯ ▯ Measuring Memory▯ • Tip-of-Tongue state: Feeling that a memory is available by not quite retrievable. ▯ • MAy be additional information▯ • E.g., the number of syllables; the first letter. ▯ • Feeling of knowing: Feeling that allows people to predict beforehand whether they’ll be able to remember something. ▯ • Recall, Recognize, Re-Learning▯ • Recall▯ • Direct retrieval of facts or information▯ • Hardest to recall items in the middle of an ordered list; known as the serial position effect: ▯ • Easier to remember first and last items in a list. ▯ ▯ Measuring Memory▯ • Recognition memory: Previously learned material is correctly identified. Usually superior to recall▯ • Distractors: False items included with a correct item▯ • Wrong choices on multiple choice tests▯ • False positive: False sense of recognition▯ • Relearning: Learning again something that was previously learned▯ • Used to measure memory of prior learning▯ • Savings score: Amount of time saved when relearning information. ▯ • Explicit memory: Past experiences that are consciously brought to mind▯ • Implicit memory: A memory not known to exist; memory that is unconsciously retrieved. ▯ • Priming: When cues are used to activate hidden memories. ▯ ▯ Forgetting▯ • Nonsense syllables: Meaningless three-letter words (fej, quf) that test learning and forgetting▯ • Why? So we can guarantee that these words are equally novel▯ • Encoding failure: When a memory was never formed in the first place. ▯ ▯ Curve of Forgetting▯ • Graph that shows the amount of memory info remembered (nonsense syllables) after varying lengths of time. ▯ ▯ Memory Terms▯ • Memory traces: Physical changes in nerve cells or brain activity that occur when memories are stored▯ • [when a football played gets knocked out]▯ • Memory decay: To be thought of as short-term memory losses▯ • Disuse: Theory that memory traces weaken when memories are not periodically used or retrieved ▯ • [this is very hard to figure out]▯ • Memory Cue: Any stimulus associated with a memory; usuall
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