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Lecture

Lithic Technology.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 1120
Professor
G.Crowther

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Description
Lithic Technology Chipped/flaked stone: the earliest, most common and technically complicated lithic industry Ground, pecked and polished stone: is often associated with advent of agriculture and sedentism Early Stone Age Industries Oldowan 2.6-1.6Mya Achulean 1.6 Mya-200,000 BP Flaked Stone Tools First flaked stone tools appear by 2.6 Mya Key site locations: Gona and Omo (Ethiopia) and Turkana (Kenya) Classified as Oldowan Industry- small, crudely shaped tools At least 3 different hominids MAY be associted with Oldowan Industry between 2.6-1.5 Mya Kada Gona, Ethiopia 3000 surface and excavated artifacts from 15 localities, found in fine-grained sediments of a dry riverbed 2.52-2.6 Mya Ar/Ar dating on a volcanic ash later nearly 2m above the tool-bearing deposit determined that the Gona artifacts are more than 2.52 million years old. 2.6 Mya date was obtained for mineral-rich sediments below the artifacts using paleomagnetic dating. 2 high density locatlities (EG10 and EG12 from East Gona) provide evidence of the capabilities of the earliest stone tool makers. Assemblages show sophisticated understanding of stone fracture and control similar to later Oldowan assemblages. (ca. 2.0-1.5 Mya) Dikika, Ethiopia Large fossilized animal bones with shattered ends (for removing marrow) and cut marks made by sharp stone toold, found near previously recovered Australopithecus afarensis remains. The bones are ca. 3.4 Mya Impossible to tell from the cut marks whether homonins were making stone tools or using naturally sharp rocks. Lack of adequate rock material in the immediate area where the bones were found suggests hominins carried stones around with them from one place to another. Human status of the bone markings is very controversial, others state they are from trampling or non-human predators. Who made the Earliest Stone Tools? Fossil hominid record 2.6-1.5 Mya is sparse, with most remains attributed to: Australopithecus aethiopicus, Australopithecus garhi Paranthropus (boisii and robustus) Homo (habilis and rudolphensis, ergaster and erect
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