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Neanderthal Geographic Distribution.docx

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ANTH 1131

Neanderthal Geographic Distribution  Vast majority of Neanderthals in Europe, Middle-East, and creeping towards Asia  In the cool, temperate region of the world  However, no evidence of them being in main Asia and Africa Population Density:  Not something we can decipher, due to the lack in evidence  Some say between 5,000-20,000 in Europe together in any one time  Due to the cold, harsh climatic environment, assumed that the density is low  However, we know that Neanderthals were top predators, at the top of the food change  Had diets similar to wolves, and ate a large amount of meat  Approximately the same size as wolves, as well  Lived in relatively small social groups, like wolf packs  They eat for the most part similar food as wolves  Therefore, we can use wolves as a proxy for how many Neanderthals there were at that time, despite some problems of doing so  There are 20,000 wolves living in Europe today; 5,000 years back, the population of wolves would have been higher  Then, it wouldn’t be unlikely that there were similar amounts of Neanderthals in Europe in the past – maybe even up to 500,000 Neanderthal Adaptations:  Eurasian Climatic Conditions, 250,000-30,000 years ago  For much of their existence, Neanderthals were living in cold, dry, harsh conditions  Through Lower Palaeolithic, Middle Palaeolithic, and Upper Palaeolithic, large fluctuations in climate  Over the course of time that Neanderthals were around, they lived through really cold and very hot climates – but they are mostly living in very cold conditions  You would expect that Neanderthals would have very good technological adaptations  Most researchers assume that they had clothing and made and used fires all the time  They did use fire sometimes  But the majority of archaeological sites have very little evidence for fire  Roc de Marsal, France: - The floor of the cave is covered with deposits and sediments - The sediments filled with flint, stone t
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