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Out of Africa Hypothesis.docx

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ANTH 1131

Out of Africa Hypothesis Complete Replacement or “Out of Africa” Hypothesis:  Assertion 1: AMH evolved in Africa between 250,000 and 150,000 years ago  Assertion 2: After 100,000 years ago, they spread out form their African place of origin  Assertion 3: Between 70,000 and 30,000 years ago, they replaced all other humans in the world, from Homo erectus in Asia to Neanderthals in Europe (with very little interbreeding)  Assertion 4: Therefore, everyone’s mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) should trace back to a single woman who lived in Africa during this time if this theory is correct:  This is because mtDNA is passed on from the mother, only through the female line  This woman has been given the name, “Mitochondrial Eve” Estimated Movement of Modern Humans out of Africa and into the Rest of the World:  Initially based on archaeological data  Now, we can base it on genetic data as well for the migration of our ancestors  100,000-60,000 years ago, we started moving out of Africa  35,000 years ago, we certainly arrived into Europe (although there are some evidence that it was earlier)  60,000 years ago, we arrived into Asia  40,000 years ago, we arrived into South-East Asia  50,000 years ago, there are evidence of us arriving into Australia  We moved into Siberia 30,000 years ago  Sites in the USA suggest that humans crossed over from Siberia into North America 15,000 years ago  Sites in South America dates 14,000 years ago, especially a well-dated place in Chile If the “Out of Africa” hypothesis is correct, we AMH come from Homo erectus/ergaster – Homo erectus – Archaic Homo (H. heidelbergensis) – Homo sapiens sapiens Regional Continuity Hypothesis:  Assertion 1: AMH evolved in multiple regions from local archaic groups all at once  Assertion 2: AMH appeared more or less at the same time in Africa, Asian, and Europe  Assertion 3: This occurred through constant gene flow between these regions (not parallel evolution)  Assertion 4: Therefore, if this hypothesis
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