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ANTH 2231 (47)

Class Notes for ANTH 2231 at Langara College

Primate Behaviour

ANTH 2231 Lecture Notes - Denisova Cave, Melanin, Melanocortin 1 Receptor

Artists Reconstruction of the La Ferrassis Cranium A good reconstruction, I think Neanderthal Red Heads?  Pigmentation gene from Neanderthal DNA o El Sidron, Spai, 43,000 ya o Monti Lessini, Ita...

Anthropology
ANTH 2231
B.Galdiks
ANTH 2231 Lecture Notes - Bipedalism, Foramen Magnum, Prognathism

Ardipithecus Ramidus • c. 4.4 mya • Found at the Afar Depression • We obtain a lot of fossils for this  Bits and pieces of 30 individuals • Reduced “prognathism”  Face sticks out  Trend...

Anthropology
ANTH 2231
B.Galdiks
ANTH 2231 Lecture Notes - Postcrania, Homo Sapiens, Cranial Vault

Anatomically Modern Human (AMH) Morphology  And their earliest fossils  Things we know: o oldest AMH fossils are from Africa o AMH fossils from outside are more recent Cranium AMH from Europ...

Anthropology
ANTH 2231
B.Galdiks
ANTH 2231 Lecture Notes - Microcephaly, Microblade Technology, Homo Floresiensis

Wallace Line  No dry land connecting Asia and Australia  Sunda Land – Sunda Strait (20M)  Sahul Land – Lombok Strait (250M)  Sumatra and java were part of Sunda Land By Boat?  Dafuna Canoe, Nigeria...

Anthropology
ANTH 2231
B.Galdiks
Venta Micena.docx

Venta MicenaCranial gragments that date to 16 mya but open question whether bones are hominin or not o Back of H erectus o Pigs o Horse skull o D

Anthropology
ANTH 2231
B.Galdiks
ANTH 2231 Lecture Notes - Australopithecus, Homo Ergaster, Parallel Evolution

Until 30 000 bp there was always a variety of hominin species around  The big question: How did we, Homo sapiens sapiens, come to be the only hominin species left in the world today?  Two competing hypotheses:...

Anthropology
ANTH 2231
B.Galdiks
ANTH 2231 Lecture Notes - Homo Ergaster

Time Span for H. Erectus  H. erectus (inclusive appears in Africa c. 2 mya  And H. erectus-type fossils continue: o In Africa until about 200,000 years ago o In Europe until 300,000 years ago ...

Anthropology
ANTH 2231
B.Galdiks
ANTH 2231 Lecture Notes - Thermoregulation, Quadrupedalism, Bipedalism

Theories on Obligate Bipedalism  Aferensis have shown this trait (~after 4 mya)  Evolved from practicing habitual bipedialism  Natural selection – dominant form of locomotion  Most quadrupeds are f...

Anthropology
ANTH 2231
B.Galdiks
The Problem with the Normative View.docx

The Problem with the Normative View • The normative view is that items or members of different groups are presumed to be characterized by discrete traits and can be easily divided into discrete categories. ...

Anthropology
ANTH 2231
B.Galdiks
ANTH 2231 Lecture Notes - Homo Erectus

The Development of Language a. Language allows individuals to more accurately and directly express their desires and intentions  Hunt cooperatively  Teaching and learning  Cracking nuts with spears ...

Anthropology
ANTH 2231
B.Galdiks
ANTH 2231 Lecture Notes - Bonobo, Diastema, Australopithecus Anamensis

The Australopithecines • Australopithecus anamensis (oldest) • Australopithecus afarensis • Australopithecus africanus • Australopithecus sediba Australopithecus Anamensis • ~ 4 mya • 1965 • Leakle...

Anthropology
ANTH 2231
B.Galdiks
ANTH 2231 Lecture Notes - Stone Tool, Neanderthal, Skhul And Qafzeh Hominins

Somewhat most recent AMH fossils (120 to 80 kya)  Middle eastern and north African sites o Qafzeh, Israel  5 burial individuals, including:  Adult females with child at her fee...

Anthropology
ANTH 2231
B.Galdiks
ANTH 2231 Lecture Notes - Mutation

Problems with the Out of Africa Hypothesis 1. Computing mtDNA Mutation Rates 2. Observed Mutation Rates a. Based on direct observation of modern human genetics, the rate of mtDNA change (...

Anthropology
ANTH 2231
B.Galdiks
ANTH 2231 Lecture Notes - Blombos Cave, Digging Stick

Prior to 40,000 Years Ago • Rare use of one for making tools • Little evidence for preparation of animal hides • No evidence of basketry • No evidence of cordage (rope/string) • Some evidence of glues/resins b...

Anthropology
ANTH 2231
B.Galdiks
ANTH 2231 Lecture Notes - Oldowan, Acheulean, Lithic Technology

Prehistoric Material Culture  Lithic technology (stone tools)  Clothing  Wooden tools Later Prehistoric/historic Material Culture  Pottery/ceramics o 15-20,000 bp Glass o 5,000 bp ...

Anthropology
ANTH 2231
B.Galdiks

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