The Problem with the Normative View
• The normative view is that items or members of different groups
are presumed to be characterized by discrete traits and can be
easily divided into discrete categories.
• Anthropologists were seeing continuous (not discrete) distributions
of traits across ―racial‖ boundaries and geographic regions.
• All the traits we can see (as well as genetic traits that are not
visible) which have been used to differentiate ―races‖ have a
Skin Colour Distribution
Most traits are polygenic: • They are controlled by multiple genes.
Most traits are also polymorphic:
• There are more than two different genotypes.
Thus, most traits have multiple