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Lecture

Nervous and Musular System.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 1115
Professor
T.Williams
Semester
Winter

Description
 The nervous system that uses electrical signals to specific molecules this only takes a fraction of a second and effect is short lived. The endocrine system uses specific molecules secreted by special cells into the bloodstream and transported though the body to target tissues effects are normally long lasting.  The hypothalamus is the sensing center in the brain for physiological stress.  They cause short term stress response. Glycogen to break down to glucose that increases blood pressure, breathing rate, metabolic rate which increase alertness and decrease digestive and kidney activity.  Retention of sodium and water by the kidney. Increase blood volume. Proteins and fats broken down and converted to glucose. Immune system may be suppressed.  The function of the dendrite is that they receive information from other neuron.  The function of the axon is where the action potential is transmitted to another neuron.  A mixture of proteins and phospholipids that created an insulating sheath around the nerve fibers. They are produced by the Schwann cells.  The area is called Node of Ranvier. They don’t have myelin because it is faster to transmit action potential.  Away from the cell body, towards the terminus.  Positive to Negative.  The resting potential is -70mV. Only nerve and muscle cells can generate changes.  At resting potential the membrane is polarized because it is negative in the inside and positive on the outside. When the nerve is simulated by touch, electrically or chemically by molecules that affect membrane protein channels. First the membrane is depolarized because NA channels open up and NA flows down their gradient into the cell this will cause the cell to change from negative to positive. After membrane protein for K opens and K starts to move out of the cell which will cause the cell membrane to go ba
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