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BIOL 1175

WEIGHT To understand Weight and nutrition we first have to understand nutrients - Nutrients are component of food that are needed to perform a physiological body function Nutrients Include - Carbohydrates (macronutrients) - Proteins (macronutrients) - Lipids (macronutrients) - Minerals (micronutrients) - Vitamins (micronutrients) Calories - measured of heating apacity, its measure of energy yield - energy released in breaking down food molecules - lipids have more electrons than carbohydrates and proteins, more energy to yield Carbohydrates - Preferred source of energy (fats/lipids next, then proteins) - Sugar of polysaccharides that are digested into simple sugar, important energy source - Refined grains should be minimized in diet because fiber and vitamins are removed (white bread, flour, cake, cookies) - Complex carbohydrate are recommended as a good source of vitamins and minerals (beans, whole grain, nuts, fruits) Why should we be concerned with obesity? - Has doubled in US in last 20 years - In US 1/3 adults are obese, now prevalent in children and adolescents - Obesity tends to increase with an increase income except in north America - Increased risk of premature death, 2 diabetes, hypertension, CVD, stroke, etc… Can carbohydrates be harmful? - refined sugar and fructose sugar may contribute to obesity, body can not convert excess carbohydrate to lipids vice versa. - Food may cause pancrease to secrete large amounts of insulin, lead to insulin resistance 2 types of diabetes and altered lipid or fat metabolism - Increase in fat deposition cause coronary heart disease, liver disease and certain canacers - Blood sugar = glycemic index is normally carefully regulated by body How can you reduce high glycemic carbohydrates? 1. eat fewer sweets 2. eat freash fruits 3. use less sugar 4. eat less jelly, jam, perserves 5. avoid sweetened breakfast cerals 6. avoid artificial fruit juice 7. use spices such as cinnamon instead of sugar to flavor food 8. don’t put sugar in tea or coffee 9. avoid potatoe starchy stuff Lactose tolerance = lactase persistence - ability of digest lactose into adulthood, normally mammals are weaned off of breast milk and lactase enzyme gene is turned off - non persistence lactose intolerance is ancestral trait Proteins Digested into 20 different aa which used to produce ceulluar proteins - essential aa are 8 aa that must be attained through di
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