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Lecture

Immunity.docx

6 Pages
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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1175
Professor
H.Hun

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Description
Immunity  Ability to combat infectious diseases and cancer  Individual’s body makes antibodies against a particular antigen  Primary exposure is shorter-lived and slower to respond while a secondary exposure is rapid, strong response  This type of immunity is usually long-lasting  It depends on clonal selection and production of memory B and T cells  Can be brought about naturally through an infection or artificially through medical intervention (acquired by vaccination) The lymphatic and immune system to the rescue Classifying lymphatic organs  Primary o Red bone marrow o Thymus gland  Secondary o Lymph nodes, spleen and appendix Branches of the immune response  Innate Immunity – is always present, broad spectrum responses o Physical barriers o Phagocytic blood cells o Complement  Adaptive immunity – pathogen specific and forms memory, takes time to develop o Humoral response (antibody) o Cytotoxic response 3 line of Defense 1. Non-specific physical and chemical barriers 2. Non-specific inflammatory response and proteins 3. A specific and adaptive or learned response from T and B cells First line of defense  Physical barriers o Skin o Tears, saliva and urine physically flush out microbes o Mucous membranes line the respiratory, digestive, reproductive and urinary tracts and trap microbes o Resident bacteria that inhabits the body use available nutrients and space thus preventing pathogens from taking up residence  Chemical barriers o Secretions of oil glands o Lysozyme: digestive enzyme found in saliva, tears and sweat o Acidic pH of stomach and vagina Second line of defense: phagocytic white blood cells  Includes neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells  Both leave circulation and move into tissue  And other cells (mast cells) that are important for inflammatory response Third line of Defense: Adaptive immune response  Pathogen Specific  Comprised of lymphocytes – T cells and B cells have receptors of different, unique shapes that bind only to one specific antigen  Like a lock and key  Receptors diversity is generated randomly  T cells and B cells are
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