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Lecture 15

BIOL 1215 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Trochophore, Nervous Tissue, Fetus

Course Code
BIOL 1215
Anoush Dadgar

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Bio Notes Post Midterm
Plant Form and Formation
form= structure
function=what it does
Structure of Leaves
“outer” “layer”
both top and bottom
protect leaf by preventing microbes from entering the leaf
creates the waxy cuticle (non cellular)
does not do photosynthesis because they have no chloroplasts
this layer is transparent
makes it easy for sun to hit mesophyll layer
Prevents water loss
Prevents transpiration
Non cellular
oPalisade Mesophyll
Column shaped cells that are densely packed (more sunlight
exposure and more structural support)
Chlorophyll green
Do a lot of photosynthesis
Provide support so the top layer doesn’t collapse
oSpongy Mesophyll
Spherical shaped cells that are loosely packed
Chlorophyll green
Do photosynthesis
Air spaces in between them to improve gas exchange (for
Sphere shaped cell makes more surface area for photosynthesis
oXylem- thick cell walls
oPhloem- thin cell walls
Around vascular tissue
Strong walls
Made of Lignin
Always around vascular bundle
Stomata is plural
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allows gasses to go into leaf
flanked by guard cells
guard cells regulate opening and closing for gas exchange
If left open, there would be a lot of water loss
90% of the water that enter the roots of the plants is lost through
the stoma
to reduce water loss
stoma are mostly on the bottom of leaves so it is not hit by
the sun
they make sure there is very little water loss thanks to
Trichomes (hairs), extensions of the epidermis  trap water
and prevent transpiration
they close the stoma at night, no need for carbon dioxide if
it’s not photosynthesizing
there are pumps that pump potassium (K+) into guard cells with
active transport (using ATP)
potassium ion concentration gradient on outside/inside of guard
osmosis of water into guard cells due because it goes where there
is the most solute
the guard cells try to expand in length but due to the cellulose fibres
wrapping around them in the cell wall they can not
they grow slightly in length but also cannot grow much
instead they bulge out and make the gap in between them bigger,
but because they’re connected they make a bean shape
the stoma Is now open
Diversity of Leaves
Ex. Pea plants or grape vines
Climbing plants
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When the tendril finds something solid, they coil around it and pull
the plant up
Pull plants up and support then
They get better sun exposure when they are higher up and can
overtake other plants
Thick leaves
Store water
Hot, arid conditions
Photosynthetic parts underground because it is protected from sun
and heat
oPitcher plant
Traps insects
“pitcher” fills up with water
releases digestive enzymes into water
leaves are waxy and makes insects fall in
plant gets proteins and nitrogen from the insect
Diversity of stems
oSupport, lets plants get taller
Ex. Potato / mountain buffalo
Stores starch for plant when there is a lack of it
oBaobab Tree
Stores water
Thick trunk
Can live for a long time
Ex. Strawberries
Horizontal stem, plant will break and a new plant will grow
Asexual reproduction (genetically identical)
Has vascular tissue arranged in a circle (eudicot)
Protection from predators (from herbivores)
Diversity of Roots
Ex. Carrot
Roots grow deep to access more water and minerals
Storage system (carbs and sugar)
Structured support (anchor)
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