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CHEM 1114

Titrations Acid- Base Titration Titration : process of adding a known concentration (usually a base) to known volume of solution of unknown concentration (usually an acid) for the purpose of determining the unknown concentration. Standard Solution (Standardized solution) = a solution with an accuracy known concentration Primary Standard =substance that is used to find the concentration of the standard solution -the substance must be obtainable in a pure stable form (doesn’t absorb from H O or CO 2 ; and i2s molar mass must be known Most Common Primary Standards Acidic : KHC 8 O44potassium hydrogen phthalate molar weight/ molar mass : 204.22 g/mol H2 2O 4 *O 2Oxalic acid dehydrate molar weight = 126.07 g/mol Basic : Na 2O 3Sodium Carbonate molar weight 105.99 g/mol Titration Process The primary standard is a solution that one makes from its solid form -its concentration can be calculated since measurements about its mass and volume are known -is titrated witht he standard solution to determine the concentration of the standard solution The standard solution is titrated with the unknown solution At the end of the titration + - Moles of H = moles of OH ^That is called the equivalence point In a titration, the reaction between the acid (A) and base (B) is represented by aA +bB  cSalt +dH O 2 where a,b,c and d are coefficients and moles A =a moles B b - + Ex. CH 3OOH +H O 2 CH COO + H3O 3 OH----------> CH 3OOH +NaOH  NaCH COO + H 3 2 A/B TITRATIONS : NEUTRALIZATION REACTIONS Formula Equation Net Ionic Equation Strong acid + strong base self- ionization of water Weak acid + weak base Strong acid + weak base Indicators Indicators: weak acids (or bases) in which form has a different colour from its conjugate base form -are used to determine the pH of a
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