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GEOL 2207 (204)

Class Notes for GEOL 2207 at Langara College

Natural Hazards

GEOL 2207 Lecture Notes - Paleoclimatology, International Energy Agency, Abrupt Climate Change

Climate Change Anticipated Impacts and Our Response Human Forcing  2007 report by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change stated that although abrupt climate change has occurred in the past, there is...

Geology
GEOL 2207
B.Ward
GEOL 2207 Lecture Notes - Mount Pinatubo, Medieval Warm Period, Ice Age

Climate change on Short Timescales  Ocean Circulation – Ocean Conveyor belt  Circulation of ocean water in oceans o Important circulation that was thought to change climate  Can cause fast ch...

Geology
GEOL 2207
B.Ward
The Greenhouse Effect.docx

The Greenhouse Effect  Earth’s temperature depends on three things: o Amount of sunlight received  Most is ultraviolet with short wavelength  About 2/3 is absorbed to ...

Geology
GEOL 2207
B.Ward
GEOL 2207 Lecture Notes - Tonne, 2Degrees, Ecosystem Services

What is our problem?  Our economic system does not effectively put a price on water, air, ecosystem services: o We pay collectively for the use of these “free” resources by individu...

Geology
GEOL 2207
B.Ward
GEOL 2207 Lecture Notes - Carboniferous, Seafloor Spreading

Climate Change through Geologic Time  Evidence for large temperature fluctuations in geologic record on various timescales  Tertiary and Quaternary periods o Overall cooling to present ...

Geology
GEOL 2207
B.Ward
GEOL 2207 Lecture Notes - Meteorology, Abrupt Climate Change, Paleoclimatology

Climate change in the past  Geoarchives  Ice Cores– records water that falls as snow, also tracks tiny bubbles of atmospheric gases o How much CO2 in atmosphere when snow felt  We ha...

Geology
GEOL 2207
B.Ward
GEOL 2207 Lecture Notes - Straw, Radiative Forcing

Atmospheric GHG Concentration  Can look at these concentrations to see how things have varied GHG are taking off with radiative forcing; associated with Industrial Revolution  Dominant drivers of dri...

Geology
GEOL 2207
B.Ward
GEOL 2207 Lecture Notes - Atmospheric Circulation, Thermosphere

Structure of Atmosphere  Troposphere is where heat is trapped  Stratosphere dry, cold layer above the troposphere o Strong winds circulate aerosols  Uppermost layers (mesosphere and thermosph...

Geology
GEOL 2207
B.Ward
GEOL 2207 Lecture Notes - Greenland Ice Sheet, Dengue Fever, Lyme Disease

 Spread of disease o Linked to changes in temperatures of niche environments o Some pathogen-bearing insects are sensitive to climate (e.g., mosquitos) o Diseases of concer...

Geology
GEOL 2207
B.Ward
GEOL 2207 Lecture Notes - Equinox, Pleistocene

Ice Ages  Pleistocene: 2.6 ma – 11.7 ka BP – many glacial/interglacial periods  18,000 years ago: 30% of land surface covered by ice  ~5 major “ice ages” (including present beginning ~2.6 Ma BP) dating ...

Geology
GEOL 2207
B.Ward
GEOL 2207 Lecture Notes - Milankovitch Cycles

Orbital Controls on climate  Milankovitch Cycles: Radiation variations o Related to orbital oscillations o The problem he had was getting people to listen to him  Obliquity (tilt): ~40ka...

Geology
GEOL 2207
B.Ward
GEOL 2207 Lecture Notes - Maunder Minimum, Geologic Record

Greenhouse gases Carbon Dioxide  Present time period we’re in, we’re seeing Interglaciation and Glaciation  Geologic record tells us we’re in unusual atmospheric condition o Doesn’t relate ...

Geology
GEOL 2207
B.Ward
Hydrologic Cycle.docx

 Hydrologic Cycle o More vigourous  more precipitation  greater incidence of extreme events and flooding o Changes to duration of monsoon season  Extremely important for Asian ...

Geology
GEOL 2207
B.Ward
GEOL 2207 Lecture Notes - Pinus Contorta, Mountain Pine Beetle, Wildfire Suppression

Glacier Hazards o Catastrophic lake drainages o Ice avalanches o Icebergs  Arctic Sea Ice: o Ice-albedo feedback o Loss of habitat, opening of shipping routes...

Geology
GEOL 2207
B.Ward
GEOL 2207 Lecture Notes - Permafrost, Chlorofluorocarbon, Radiative Forcing

Global radiative forcing  Radiative forcing (RF): electromagnetic energy per unit time per unit area reaching top of the Earth’s atmosphere  Changes in any of the radiative fluxes  radiative imbalanc...

Geology
GEOL 2207
B.Ward

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