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Lecture

T-storm and a bit about Super cell.docx

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Department
Geology
Course
GEOL 2207
Professor
J.Finnis
Semester
Summer

Description
T-storm and a bit about Super cell Explain the main characteristics that make a supercell so much nastier than a normal Tstorm.  Large rotating single-cell  Lasts longer  Can have tornadoes associated with them  Lightning, hail, heavy rain, strong winds  Rotates in a mesocyclone  Can cause flash floods Be able to recognize thunderstorms in radar and satellite images.  Can view both visible light and at night  Can observe storms at different frequencies; infrared  dBZ: a disaster intensity scale for rainfall  radar echoes o 30 light, 40 moderate, 50 heavy, 50+ extreme  Shooting above the anvil Explain the behavior of downbursts and gust fronts, and identify their associated cloud & dust features.  Downdraft speeds of 20-90 km/h  Cold air sinking  Precipitation causes downburst: as rain is falling out of the cloud into the drier cloud, some of the rain evaporates; precipitation drag  the rain drags the air  When the cold air hits the ground, it makes the gust fronts  Arc cloud  Gust front: downburst air hits ground and spreads out; can blow down trees Describe why the fact that cold air holds less water vapor is critical in explaining how Tstorms can extract energy from humid air.  Warm humid rising air, condensation, releasing heat into storm  Saturation value = maximum humidity that air can hold Be able to recognize tornadoes and wall clouds.  Is it rotating fast? Twigs, leaves, hay, cows, fences  Violently rotating columns of air  Funnel clouds Explain why supercell thunderstorms spawn the most dangerous tornadoes.  Striations around mesocyclone  Wall cloud  tornado  Rotational winds cause more damage Relate the Enhanced Fujita scale to different amounts of damage.  EF0= very weak, break a few windows; EF5 = strong, totally destroys buildings Descr
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