T-storm and a bit about Super cell
Explain the main characteristics that make a supercell so much nastier than a
Large rotating single-cell
Can have tornadoes associated with them
Lightning, hail, heavy rain, strong winds
Rotates in a mesocyclone
Can cause flash floods
Be able to recognize thunderstorms in radar and satellite images.
Can view both visible light and at night
Can observe storms at different frequencies; infrared
dBZ: a disaster intensity scale for rainfall radar echoes
o 30 light, 40 moderate, 50 heavy, 50+ extreme
Shooting above the anvil Explain the behavior of downbursts and gust fronts, and identify their
associated cloud & dust features.
Downdraft speeds of 20-90 km/h
Cold air sinking
Precipitation causes downburst: as rain is falling out of the cloud into the
drier cloud, some of the rain evaporates; precipitation drag the rain drags
When the cold air hits the ground, it makes the gust fronts
Gust front: downburst air hits ground and spreads out; can blow down trees
Describe why the fact that cold air holds less water vapor is critical in
explaining how Tstorms can extract energy from humid air.
Warm humid rising air, condensation, releasing heat into storm
Saturation value = maximum humidity that air can hold
Be able to recognize tornadoes and wall clouds.
Is it rotating fast? Twigs, leaves, hay, cows, fences
Violently rotating columns of air Funnel clouds
Explain why supercell thunderstorms spawn the most dangerous tornadoes.
Striations around mesocyclone
Wall cloud tornado
Rotational winds cause more damage
Relate the Enhanced Fujita scale to different amounts of damage.
EF0= very weak, break a few windows; EF5 = strong, totally destroys