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Tsunami and Surges.docx

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GEOL 2207

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Tsunami and Surges Describe how tsunami form and how they are detected.  Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, meteor impacts, landslides, icebergs falling from glaciers  DART System: measures pressure changes on seafloor, communicates info to warning centres Explain how a tsunami differs from more common, wind-driven ocean waves.  Short wavelength and period, breakers arrive and recede quickly  Tsunami: ultralong walvelength and period, huge mass of water comes ashore for several minutes Explain why tsunami come ashore so violently.  Vertical fault motion, energy transfer to water column, common in large subduction-related earthquakes Identify tsunami warning signs, and know how to respond.  First wave may not be biggest  Trough may arrive first, watch for receding sea level Describe the risks from a tsunami for the coast of British Columbia, especially one resulting from a megathrust earthquake.  Liquefaction, buried sand/mud volcanoes Define wave breaking, and determine when a wave will break.  Breaking waves = energy release  Waves become unstable, too high for wavelength  Wave energy becomes surf energy, turbulent mass of water rushing onshore  As waves shoal (move into shallower water), characteristics change o Speed, wavelength decreases o Height, steepness increases o Period same o Orbitals flatten, become elliptical Explain the differences between surging, plunging, and spilling breakers.  Spilling: small gentle spilling breakers, wave energy lost over a wide area  Plunging: steep slope, large violent,
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