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Langara College
GEOL 2207

Volcanoes  Risk: (vulnerability x hazard) / mitigation o Hazard = size, frequency, type of damage o Vulnerability = what is impacted and value o Mitigation = $$$ invested to reduce vulnerability or to control hazard  How do we study volcanoes? o Study and monitor active systems o Forensic reconstruction  What is volcanology? o Structure where magma is erupted o Includes erupted products o All shapes & sizes, diverse composition, subaerial & subaqueous  What is a volcanic system? o Source Region  Mantle (Periodotite)  melting  Magma (Basaltic  granitic)  Crust o Transport Region  Magma channels  Magma moves along cracks in the earth’s crust  Forms dikes and sills  Dike: vertical intrusion of magma  Sill: horizontal intrusion of magma o Storage Region  Magma chamber  Magma ponds below the earth’s surface in large chambers  Magma that freezes in crust and is not erupted = intrusive rock o Eruption Region  Igneous rocks form  Cooled at surface: extrusive/volcanic, small crystals/fine grained, rapid cooling  Cooled below surface: intrusive/plutonic, large crystals/course grained, slow cooling  What is volcanic system?  List the different categories of volcanic rocks and explain the differences between the magmas they came from.  Physical Properties of Magmas o Melt density o Decreases: basalt  rhyolite; rising temperature o Increases: cooling, pressure o Controls: ascent, eruption  Density and Viscosity and Volcanic Behaviour. o Viscosity: resistance to flow o Controls flow, deformation, eruption o Milk = low viscosity; hot, mafic, lower silica = runny; Pahoehoe o Honey= high viscosity; cooler, felsic, high silica = gooey; AA  Use the VEI to rank the s
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