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Lecture

Earthquakes.docx

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Department
Geology
Course
GEOL 2207
Professor
J.Finnis
Semester
Summer

Description
Earthquakes  Describe the global distribution of earthquakes and how often quakes of various magnitudes occur o Around plate boundaries  Understand the different types of faulting at different plate boundaries, and which plate boundaries produce the largest quakes o Divergent, convergent, transform  Distinguish between oceanic crust, continental crust, 
 lithosphere and plates o Oceanic crust is thinner, more dense than continental crust o Ridge push: movement of plates at ridges is propelled by sliding along the elevated lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary o Slab pull: dense, subducting lithosphere “pulls” the plate along with it  Recognize an association between seismic/volcanic events and 
 plate margins  Recognize visual evidence of tectonic forces in rocks and 
 landscapes (e.g. fault types, topography)  Strike-slip faults o Caused by shear stress, lateral movement  Describe how the Earth builds, stores, and releases energy in earthquakes (elastic rebound) o Elastic rebound theory: elastic strain drops after an earthquake and then slowly accumulates again until the next one  Understand concepts of (1) stress causing strain and (2) plastic versus brittle deformation o Stress is the force (N) applied per unit of area, measured in Pascals (pa) o Compression (forces act towards each other) o Tension (forces act away from each other) o Shear (forces are parallel but act on opposite sides of a plane) o Stress (Deformation): Elastic, Plastic, Brittle o Elastic: temporary change in shape or size, recovers o Plastic: permanent change in shape or size (results in folding of rocks) o Brittle: loss of cohesion due to stress (results in faults)  Describe how the rupture propagates from the focus and why shaking and damage are not necessarily greatest at the epicenter o Seismic waves radiate from the focus of an earthquake  Explain the global distribution of earthquakes (i.e. rare, large 
 and frequent small quakes) in terms of tectonic plate interactions and the forces that drive them  Describe the different types of seismic waves and how they move through the Earth o P waves always arrive first o Body waves: within the earth = P and S waves  Much faster than surface waves, generally not damaging to buildings  Primary waves = faster, travels through solids or fluids  Secondary waves = travels through solids only  Time between P and S = estimate distance from focus (hypocenter) o Surface waves: Rayleigh waves, Love waves  Much slo
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