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GEOL 2207

Waves Identify key properties of waves.  Crest: highest point  Trough: lowest point  Wavelength: distance for one full cycle (crest to crest)  Wave height (H): vertical distance from crest to trough  Amplitude: half of height  Steepness: height/wavelength  Period, T: time for one wavelength to pass a point  Frequency, f: number of waves per time period  Celerity, c: often just called speed, distance per time Use these properties to determine wave speed and behaviour in either shallow or deep water.  Deep water wave: d >= wavelength/2  Shall water wave: d <= wavelength/2  Transitional waves: wavelength/20 < d < wavelength/2  Deep water waves don’t feel the ocean floor, shallow water waves feel ocean floor  As waves move into shallow water: speed decreases, wavelength decreases, height increases, steepness increases, period stays the same, orbitals flatten  elliptical, waves break Explain how waves move matter and energy. Describe the forces that generate waves, eliminate waves, and return the ocean to a flat, undisturbed surface.  Wind over ocean = wind wave  Changes in atmospheric pressure, storm surge, tsunami = seiche  Faulting of sea floor, volcanic eruption, land slide = tsunami  Gravitational attraction, rotation of earth = tide  Restoring force = surface tension (capillar
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