Identify key properties of waves.
Crest: highest point
Trough: lowest point
Wavelength: distance for one full cycle (crest to crest)
Wave height (H): vertical distance from crest to trough
Amplitude: half of height
Period, T: time for one wavelength to pass a point
Frequency, f: number of waves per time period
Celerity, c: often just called speed, distance per time
Use these properties to determine wave speed and behaviour in either shallow
or deep water.
Deep water wave: d >= wavelength/2
Shall water wave: d <= wavelength/2
Transitional waves: wavelength/20 < d < wavelength/2 Deep water waves don’t feel the ocean floor, shallow water waves feel ocean
As waves move into shallow water: speed decreases, wavelength decreases,
height increases, steepness increases, period stays the same, orbitals flatten
elliptical, waves break
Explain how waves move matter and energy.
Describe the forces that generate waves, eliminate waves, and return the
ocean to a flat, undisturbed surface.
Wind over ocean = wind wave
Changes in atmospheric pressure, storm surge, tsunami = seiche
Faulting of sea floor, volcanic eruption, land slide = tsunami
Gravitational attraction, rotation of earth = tide
Restoring force = surface tension (capillar