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Local Soil and Rock Conditions.docx

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GEOL 2207

Local Soil and Rock Conditions Local Geology influences ground motion  Dense rock (bedrock) transmit earthquake energy quickly  Slow down in heterogeneous rocks, unconsolidated sediment and sediment with high water content Amplification occurs when energy transferred from P and S waves to surface waves as they slow  Increases when speed of earthquake energy slows down  Ex. Richmond and Delta and areas around Fraser River More damage can occur in areas further away from epicenter depending on local ground conditions Clays (Lake sediments up to 40m thick) amplified motions up to 50x compared to adjacent solid rock Earthquakes: Direct and Indirect Consequences Effects of Earthquakes Ground Rupture  Displacement along the fault causes cracks in surface and fault scarps  Lot of money in California spent in planning Shaking  Causes damage to buildings, bridges, dams, tunnels, pipelines, etc.  Measure as ground acceleration Earthquakes don’t kill people, buildings do Type of construction is crucial Liquefaction  Sand layers turn from solid to liquid, causing buildings and land to sink  Occurs in young lose, water saturated sediments o Water pushed out between pores, and becomes liquid o Makes sand volcanoes when wa
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