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HIST 1126

NATIVES AND NEWCOMERS(1000-1663) -WHEN CARTIER ENTERED THE BAIE DES CHALEURS HE MET NATIVES PROBABLY MI’KMQ -at the beginning of the 16 century Europe was experiencing a period of rapid change -The feudal system was breaking down -Slavery was widely practiced especially in southern and eastern Europe Portugal and Spain beginning to engage in African slave trade -The guilds that had once made rules to ensure the protection of artisans gave way to capitalist enterprises that hired workers for wages -Women were punished if they broke social norms as witchcraft trials attested -Martin Luther led the challenge against the pope(head of roman catholic church) the reformation of Christianity led to a counter reformation by the pope -Christian church split into catholic and protestant variants -Wars between Catholics and Protestants spread across Europe usually ended with only one variant of Christianity allowed in a state -Innovation of techniques of ship construction navigation and armament production was a major factor in the successful overseas expansion of Europe. -The new printing press helped to spread new ideas and encourage individual initiative -The Turks pushed Europe further into exploring overseas due to their capture of Constantinople, which blocked traders from traveling to Far East, prevented Europe from getting products much in demand -by 1500 large unified states led my monarchs emerged as the most powerful political institutions in Europe overseas ventures along with bloody wars at home were sponsored by rulers as part of their efforts to expand territory and national wealth. -If successful colonies would exploit native labor absorb energy of their restive citizens and enrich the mother country by shipping back resources -Also spread Christianity which like capitalism and nationalism fuelled their desire for overseas expansion A BRIEF ENCOUNTER -The first contact for which there is solid proof occurred at the end of the 10 century by this time the Vikings a sea travelling people who had spread over much of Europe had established settlements in Iceland and Greenland -Norse settlements failed to take root in Vinland it was far from their home land and hostilities soon developed with the people living in the region whom the Vikings called skraelings meaning wretches or savages with no military might the Vikings retreated to Greenland -The Beothuk Mi’kamq Innu and Inuit peoples who may have come in contact with these European intruders were probably not affected by these Vikings. EARLY EXPLORATIONS -Portugal and Spain led in the drive for overseas expansion -in 1440 Portuguese vessels had reached the gulf of guinea and began carrying back slaves gold
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