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Sex Hormones.docx

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Health Sciences
HSCI 1120

Sex Hormones Male Sex Hormones Testes  Testosterone o Sperm producing capability and maintaining genitals o Stimulating and maintaining the secondary sex characteristics (such as beard growth) o Stimulating the growth of bone and muscle Pituitary  Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) o Controls sperm production  Luteinizing hormone (LH) o Controls testosterone production Hypothalamus  Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) o Secreted by hypothalamus  Regulate the pituitary which releases LH and FSH Female sex hormones Ovaries  Estrogen o Brings many of the changes of puberty (stimulating the growth of the uterus and vagina, enlarging the pelvis, and stimulating breast growth) o Responsible for maintaining the membranes of the vagina and stopping bone and muscle growth  Progesterone: important hormone for Pituitary  Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)  Luteinizing hormone (LH)  Prolactin o Stimulates milk production by mammary glands after women gives birth  Oxytocin o Stimulates ejection of that milk from the nipple o Stimulates contractions of the uterus during childbirth Hypothalamus  Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)  When GnRH is produced pituitary is stimulated to produce LH and FSH Prenatal Sexual Differentiation  Sex chromosomes  XX=female  XY=male  XXY=Klinefelter’s Syndrome  Sex chromosomes carry information on how to differentiate in the course of development Gonads & Pre-natal hormones  Sex chromosomes direct the gonads to begin differentiation o Ovaries develop later than testes  Sex-determining region (Y chromosome) – SRY o Manufactures testis-determining factor (TDF) which makes the gonads differentiate o If TDF not present, female development occurs (default option)  Mullerian ducts = fallopian tubes, uterus and upper vagina  Wolffian ducts = epididymis, vas deferens and ejaculatory duct Descent of testes and ovaries  Change in shape and position  Ovaries travel shorter distance than the testes  2 issues that infrequently arise in males o Undescended testes (cryptorchidism) o Inguinal canal does no close off Homologous organs  Different anatomies with similar origins  Originate from same embryotic tissue Analogous organs  Similar functioning organs  Both produce hormones Atypical prenatal gend
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